A Lisfranc (midfoot) injury is a significant injury that often has a prolonged recovery time. Fracture of the midfoot bones and/or disruption of the midfoot ligaments (Figure 1) leads to pain, swelling, and often an inability to weight-bear. During normal standing and walking the ligaments of the midfoot are subject to forces that are 2-3 times body weight.
What is lisfranc injury
The Lisfranc fracture is a fracture of the foot in which one or all of the metatarsals are displaced from the tarsus. It is named after 18th- and 19th-century surgeon and gynecologist Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin. This type of injury classically occurred when a horseman fell while riding, having trapped his foot in the stirrup or fallen into a drain. At present, such an injury happens typically in activities such as windsurfing (where participants' feet are in foot straps that pass over the metatarsals), or when one steps into a hole and the foot twists heavily. Falling from a height of two or three stories can also cause this fracture. American football players occasionally get this injury, often when they have their foot pointing down and someone lands on their heel.
A Lisfranc injury is initially diagnosed based on the history and description of the athlete’s acute injury. Often an athletic trainer at the practice or competition may see the injury occur in real time and have an immediate suspicion for the injury. The athlete will describe the immediate onset of pain in the midfoot region. There may be difficulty or even an inability to put weight on the injured foot. Over the course of the ensuing day, swelling and bruising often occurs that when serious may even become evident on the bottom of the foot. On a physical exam, the injured athlete will be tender over Lisfranc’s joint and any others involved in the injury. In the most severe of injuries, those that involve a large direct crushing force to the foot, the swelling may be so severe that an emergent evaluation in an emergency room is necessary and possibly even immediate surgery. This is however extremely rare in the setting of athletic injuries.
Lisfranc injury recovery time
Most often the treatment of a Lisfranc injury is surgical, although some minor injuries can be treated conservatively. If there is minimal displacement of the bones, a stiff walking cast applied for approximately eight weeks is an appropriate alternative. However, the more common treatment is to secure the fractured and dislocated bones with either internal (screws) or external (pins) fixation.
Stable Lisfranc injuries that do not require surgery may cause an athlete to miss 2 months or more of their season. However, most athletes are able to successfully return at some point. Those injuries that are unstable, and require surgical repair, are serious injuries that almost always cause the injured athlete to miss the remainder of their season. It is also not uncommon for a high level athlete to not be able to return to the same level of athletic performance even in following seasons. Two well-known examples are Eric Rhett and Duce Staley both of whom had surgery for a serious Lisfranc injury and never successfully returned to their pre-injury form.
Amyloidosis Prognosis and Treatment Amyloidosis results from the deposition of insoluble, fibrous amyloid proteins, nearly always in the extracellular spaces of organs and tissues. All amyloid proteins share a unique fibrillar ultrastructure. Amyloid fibrils can be deposited locally or may involve virtually every organ system of the body. Amyloid fibril deposition may have no apparent clinical consequences or may lead to severe pathophysiologic changes.
There are multiple clinically and biochemically distinct forms of amyloid that share a unique morphology and secondary structure; some are systemic and others are localized or organ-limited. Although the fibril precursors differ in their amino acid sequences, the polypeptide backbones of these protein precursors assume an identical secondary structure, the beta-pleated sheet conformation, and similar fibrillar morphologies that render them resistant to proteolysis. All amyloid deposits contain an identical nonfibrillar component, the pentraxin or serum amyloid P (SAP). The amyloidoses are classified according to the biochemical nature of the fibril-forming protein. Systemic amyloidoses include biochemically distinct forms that are neoplastic, inflammatory, genetic, or iatrogenic in origin, while localized or organ-limited amyloidoses are associated with aging and diabetes and occur in isolated organs, often endocrine, without evidence of systemic involvement.
Diet for Diabetics Type 1 Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Type 2 diabetes, which is far more common, occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or doesn't make enough insulin.
Diet and exercise plan articles Here is some articles about Diet and exercise plan. How can you lose weight? With diet and exercise. The key to successful weight loss is developing healthy diet and exercise habits. You may not like those words — diet and exercise. Don't get hung up on the words. Diet just means eating healthy, lower calorie meals. Exercise means being more active.
Mononucleosis symptoms children Are you looking for mononucleosis symptoms children? Infectious mononucleosis (IM; also known as EBV infectious mononucleosis or glandular fever or Pfeiffer's disease or Filatov's disease and sometimes colloquially as the kissing disease from its oral transmission or simply as mono in North America and as glandular fever in other English-speaking countries) is an infectious, widespread viral disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), one type of herpes virus, to which more than 90% of adults have been exposed. Occasionally, the symptoms can recur at a later period. Most people are exposed to the virus as children, when the disease produces no noticeable symptoms or only flu-like symptoms. In developing countries, people are exposed to the virus in early childhood more often than in developed countries. As a result, the disease in its observable form is more common in developed countries. It is most common among adolescents and young adults.
Immunization for children and schedule You can see the diseases, vaccine-preventable diseases in this column and the number of cases reported prior to routine immunization and then the number of cases reported last year in this country. You’ll see a real dramatic decline in these vaccine-preventable diseases. Between 95 and 100% decline and this is due to routine immunization against these diseases. So this is a very dramatic success story, and because of this - this is from the MMWR published by the CDC - the top public health achievement of this century in this country is routine vaccination. So you can be assured that this is something that will be on the Boards because it’s been such a tremendous success, a tremendous achievement and it is very important.
Heart Attack Symptoms Warning Signs As the atherosclerotic plaques enlarge, they become cracked and ulcerated. The clotting factors in the blood may treat this ulceration like a cut and form a clot over the plaque, completely blocking the artery. When a branch of a coronary artery becomes totally obstructed, the heart cells that it supplies die, resulting in a heart attack. Heart attack is medically referred to as a myocardial infarction, meaning death of the heart muscle.
Although clot formation over an ulcerated plaque is believed to cause the majority of heart attacks, others are caused when a piece of plaque or clot breaks off, obstructing the artery below the actual site of atherosclerosis. A few may be caused when the diseased artery contracts because of irritation from the plaque. About 1.5 million persons have a heart attack in the United States each year.
Genetics of Behavior Behavior Genetics is a “science that combines aspects of psychology, psychiatry, physiology and genetics,” the goal of which “is to clarify the role that genetic factors play in the determination of behavior.” The term genotype refers to the total set of genes present in an individual at the time of conception and coded in the DNA. The physical manifestations of a particular genotype ate designated by characteristics that specify a specific Phenotype. Examples of phenotypes include eye color, height, blood type, language and hair type. As evident by the examples presented, phenotypes are not only genetic but may also be acquired (i.e. influenced by the environment) or a combination of both. It is likely that most psychiatric disorders are the result of a combination of genetics and environment influences)
Investigators who study the etiological implications for psychiatric illness may explore several risk factors. Studies to determine if an illness is Familial compare the percentages of family members with the illness to those in the general population of in a control group of unrelated individuals. These studies estimate the prevalence of psychopathology among relatives and make predictions about the predisposition to an illness based on familial risk factors. Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression anorexia nervosa, panic disorder and alcoholism are examples of psychiatric illness in which familial tendencies have been indicated.
Angelman Syndrome Causes and Risk Factors Are you looking for angelman syndrome causes risk factors? here is some good stuff about angelman syndrome causes risk factors. Angelman syndrome is a complex genetic disorder that primarily affects the nervous system. Characteristic features of this condition include developmental delay, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, and problems with movement and balance (ataxia). Most affected children also have recurrent seizures (epilepsy) and a small head size (microcephaly). Delayed development becomes noticeable by the age of 6 to 12 months, and other common signs and symptoms usually appear in early childhood.
Diabetes Mellitus Treatment Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease which is difficult to cure. Management concentrates on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal ("euglycemia") as possible without presenting undue patient danger. This can usually be with close dietary management, exercise, and use of appropriate medications (insulin only in the case of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Oral medications may be used in the case of type 2 diabetes, as well as insulin).
Migraine Headache Treatment and Medication Guidelines Sumatriptan
Sumatriptan (Imitrex) is available in three forms: subcutaneous injection,
nasal spray, and oral tablet. Injectable sumatriptan comes as a 6 mg dose for
use with an autoinjector. Subcutaneous sumatriptan is the most effective triptan.
It works extremely quickly with 50% headache response at 30 minutes, a one-hour
headache response of 77%, and more than 80% at two hours. Recurrence of migraine
within 24 hours after a headache response with injectable sumatriptan is 34-38%.
Recurrence with the spray and tablet is 35-40%.
Nasal spray sumatriptan. 20 mg is the optimal dose, with a two-hour headache
response of 64%. Almost 40% have headache response at 30 minutes. The spray
comes in a single-use device. When sniffed, it causes a terrible taste in the
back of the throat; therefore, patients should spray it once in one nostril and
not sniff in.
The effect of Monosodium Glutamate The effect of monosodium glutamate on the apoptosis
of rat thymocytes and Bcl-2 protein expression
Voja Pavlović, Snežana Cekić
Arch Med Sci 2006; 2, 1: 28-31
Introduction: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid
widely spread in modern nutrition. Numerous recent studies have shown the
existance of glutamic receptors on different non-neuronal cells, which among
others also include lymphocytes and thymocytes. However, it has not yet been
precisely established what modulatory effect is created by the activation of these
receptors on the immune system cells.
Exercises for Pregnant Women Exercise does wonders during pregnancy. It boosts mood, improves sleep, and reduces pregnancy aches and pains. It also prepares you for childbirth by strengthening muscles and building endurance, and makes it much easier to get back in shape after your baby's born.