A Lisfranc (midfoot) injury is a significant injury that often has a prolonged recovery time. Fracture of the midfoot bones and/or disruption of the midfoot ligaments (Figure 1) leads to pain, swelling, and often an inability to weight-bear. During normal standing and walking the ligaments of the midfoot are subject to forces that are 2-3 times body weight.
What is lisfranc injury
The Lisfranc fracture is a fracture of the foot in which one or all of the metatarsals are displaced from the tarsus. It is named after 18th- and 19th-century surgeon and gynecologist Jacques Lisfranc de St. Martin. This type of injury classically occurred when a horseman fell while riding, having trapped his foot in the stirrup or fallen into a drain. At present, such an injury happens typically in activities such as windsurfing (where participants' feet are in foot straps that pass over the metatarsals), or when one steps into a hole and the foot twists heavily. Falling from a height of two or three stories can also cause this fracture. American football players occasionally get this injury, often when they have their foot pointing down and someone lands on their heel.
A Lisfranc injury is initially diagnosed based on the history and description of the athleteís acute injury. Often an athletic trainer at the practice or competition may see the injury occur in real time and have an immediate suspicion for the injury. The athlete will describe the immediate onset of pain in the midfoot region. There may be difficulty or even an inability to put weight on the injured foot. Over the course of the ensuing day, swelling and bruising often occurs that when serious may even become evident on the bottom of the foot. On a physical exam, the injured athlete will be tender over Lisfrancís joint and any others involved in the injury. In the most severe of injuries, those that involve a large direct crushing force to the foot, the swelling may be so severe that an emergent evaluation in an emergency room is necessary and possibly even immediate surgery. This is however extremely rare in the setting of athletic injuries.
Lisfranc injury recovery time
Most often the treatment of a Lisfranc injury is surgical, although some minor injuries can be treated conservatively. If there is minimal displacement of the bones, a stiff walking cast applied for approximately eight weeks is an appropriate alternative. However, the more common treatment is to secure the fractured and dislocated bones with either internal (screws) or external (pins) fixation.
Stable Lisfranc injuries that do not require surgery may cause an athlete to miss 2 months or more of their season. However, most athletes are able to successfully return at some point. Those injuries that are unstable, and require surgical repair, are serious injuries that almost always cause the injured athlete to miss the remainder of their season. It is also not uncommon for a high level athlete to not be able to return to the same level of athletic performance even in following seasons. Two well-known examples are Eric Rhett and Duce Staley both of whom had surgery for a serious Lisfranc injury and never successfully returned to their pre-injury form.
Parkinsons disease treatment guidelines Excitement and tension can cause these symptoms to worsen, as can depression. Depression common among Parkinsonís disease victims, who are understandably upset by their loss of muscle control.
Parkinsons disease Diagnosis
Diagnostic evaluation involves a history, physical examination, and observation of the symptoms. If tremors are the only symptom displayed, tests may be done to rule out the possibility that other disorders are causing the tremors, such as liver disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic alcoholism, or over activity of the thyroid gland.
Tularemia Symptoms and Treatment An infectious disease known as tularemia, sometimes called rabbit fever, is transmitted from animals to humans who come in contact with the animal tissues. It also can be transmitted through the bites of ticks or flies or by drinking contaminated water. Like the plague-disease organism, tularemia can be transmitted by inhalation of infected particles from the lungs of a diseased person, although such occurrences are rare.
Development and Function of Respiratory System In utero the placenta is a substitute for the nonfunctioning foetal lungs. Oxygenated blood comes to the foetus from the placenta via the umbilical vein. Although lungs are not being used for ventilation and oxygenation, the normal foetus makes respiratory movements in utero. These movements have been demonstrated by real time ultrasound and are one of the parameters of the biophysical profile. These ďpracticeĒ respiratory movements normally do not draw amniotic fluid into the foetal lungs; they are merely small movements of the chest wall. The respiratory system develops from the endoderm (the same tissue that will give rise to the gastrointestinal system) during day 24 of embryonic life. Bronchi are formed by the sixteenth week of foetal development, and there are primitive lungs by 23 week. However, these can function only with great difficulty, since there are not enough alveoli for the necessary exchange of gases. Blood flow to the lungs is also inadequate at this time.
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Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treatment Guidelines What is Myelodysplastic syndromes? Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is a term for a group of disorders that cause the bone marrow to produce an inadequate number of healthy blood cells ó red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. In MDS, cells in the bone marrow responsible for making blood cells (stem cells) don't mature, don't make enough blood cells or make defective cells.
Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treatment
The prognosis depends on the following:
Whether the myelodysplastic syndrome occurred after chemotherapy or radiation therapy for another disease.
The number of blast cells in the bone marrow.
Whether one or more types of blood cells are affected.
Certain changes in the chromosomes.
Treatment options depend on the following:
Whether the myelodysplastic syndrome occurred after chemotherapy or radiation therapy for another disease.
Whether the myelodysplastic syndrome has progressed after being treated.
The age and general health of the patient.
Seizure Diagnosis and Treatment Nonfebrile seizures occur at all ages. The term
"seizure" designates a clinical event that represents dysfunction of
the central nervous system (CNS) and may signal a serious underlying
abnormality; however, more often in children the seizures result from a
transient disturbance of brain function.
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Plantar Fasciitis Treatment The plantar fascia can be involved with plantar fasciitis as it inserts into the calcaneus and also the Achilles tendon as it inserts into the back of the calcaneus. These are very common problems. If there is any sense that it is chronic inflammatory in nature and there are other systems involved, really think of a spondyloarthropathy because these areas are very commonly involved with things like ankylosing spondylitis and the like. But I do see patients occasionally and thatís all they have. They just have Achilles tendonitis or plantar fasciitis. Sometimes you can even get bursal inflammation although itís very difficult to differentiate from direct tendon involvement. But plantar fasciitis, again the most common situation I see is someone who walks a lot. Mail carriers. They start out with a 50 pound bag of mail and itís hard on their feet. They just walk around and deliver mail all day. But anybody who is on their feet a lot, walking, carrying extra weight, and the pain is usually in the sort of medial aspect of the bottom of the calcaneus. Itís not dead center, because thatís not where the plantar fascia inserts.
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The Lymphatics, Respiratory System and Skin The Lymphatics
A large part of the human body is composed of the connective tissue. Within this connective tissue are the lymph cells and the walls of the lymph vessels. The connective tissue is concerned in the formation of blood and blood vessels and also in the formation of lymph vessels.
Through the lymph vessels the white blood cells, which pick up waste material from the body, travel carrying the remains of dead tissue and foreign bodies. The lymph capillaries correspond also to the blood capillaries, the tiniest vessels which form the connection between the arterial and venous blood systems.
Leprosy Picture Symptoms and Treatment Cure What is Leprosy
Leprosy or Hansen's disease (HD), is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Named after physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen, leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions are the primary external sign. Left untreated, leprosy can be progressive, causing permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs and eyes. Contrary to folklore, leprosy does not cause body parts to fall off, although they can become numb or diseased as a result of infection; infection results in tissue loss, so fingers and toes become shortened and deformed as the cartilage is absorbed into the body.
Currently, there are several areas (India, East Timor) of the world where the WHO and other agencies (for example, the Leprosy Mission) are working to decrease the number of clinical cases of leprosy and other diseases such as rabies and schistosomiasis that occur in remote regions. Although researchers hope to eliminate leprosy like smallpox, endemic (meaning prevalent or embedded in a region) leprosy makes complete eradication unlikely. In the U.S., leprosy has occurred infrequently but is considered endemic in Texas, Louisiana, Hawaii, and the U.S. Virgin Islands by some investigators.
Treatment of heart failure due to systolic dysfunction A. Treatment of the underlying cardiac disease
Hypertension is the primary cause of HF in many patients.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta
blockers, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are
the preferred antihypertensive agents because they improve
survival in HF. Beta blockers can also provide anginal relief
in ischemic heart disease and rate control in with atrial
Renovascular disease. Testing for renovascular disease is
indicated if there is severe or refractory hypertension, a
sudden rise in blood pressure, or repeated episodes of flash
Ischemic heart disease. Coronary atherosclerosis is the
most common cause of cardiomyopathy, comprising 50 to
75 percent of patients with HF.
a. All patients with documented ischemic heart disease
should be treated medically for relief of angina and with
risk factor reduction, such as control of serum lipids.
b. Myocardial revascularization with angioplasty or bypass
surgery may improve exercise capacity and prognosis in
patients with hibernating myocardium. Revascularization
should also be considered for repeated episodes of acute
left ventricular dysfunction and flash pulmonary edema.
Valvular disease is the primary cause of HF 10 to 12 percent.
Other causes of heart failure: Alcohol abuse, cocaine
abuse, obstructive sleep apnea, nutritional deficiencies,
myocarditis, hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, thyroid disease,
and rheumatologic disorders such as systemic lupus
Heat Stroke Treatment and Medication at Home Heat stroke may also be referred to as: heat contractions, sunstroke, heat exhaustion and heat fatigue. This health state is often life-threatening. This situation occurs when people exert or play in scorching, sticky places and their body liquids are lost during sweating, causing dehydration the body to swelter. Heat sickness may be observed as an array of illness involving the bodyís failure to deal with heat. Here is some stuff about Heat Stroke Treatment at Home