A drug is any chemical substance that can alter the structure and function of a living organism. People use drugs for many reasons. Some individuals need drugs for health reason-to maintain a normal life or to alleviate specific symptoms or complications of diseases or other conditions. Other people indulge in drugs to alter their moods.
Reasons people use drugs
Researchers have identified several reasons people use drugs:
Medical purposes: Medicines are used for a wide range of purpose - from reducing symptoms of the cold and flu or treating headaches to lowering blood pressure or cholesterol to extend life and maintain quality of life. Because of chemical imbalances, individuals who suffer from condition, such as bipolar disorder or depression, would be unable to live normal lives without the availability of certain drugs. Methylphenidate (Ritalin), commonly used as a stimulant illegally, is also used to treat adults and children who have attention-deficit disorder. When used in this capacity, Ritalin frequently helps them focus on and complete tasks-something they frequently have difficulty doing without medical intervention. Drugs as medicines, although dangerous even under a physician's care when misused or prescribed incorrectly, are invaluable to many for maintenance of an active, successful lifestyle.
Recreational/social facilitation : People frequently use drugs that they believe will lessen the tension associated with social encounters. Marijuana and alcohol are particularly popular in social situations. Potential dangers of using drugs for this purpose include mental dependency on the drug and an inability to cope with social events without using the drug.
Sensation seeking: Some people enjoy taking risks. For them, drug fulfill the need for excitement and adventure. Others turn to drugs out of boredom or a sense of inadequancy in their lives. They are seeking sensations of pleasure that are artificially induced. Unfortunately, when drug tolerance occurs or they do not find the type of "high" they were looking for, users frequently turn to increasingly dangerous drugs or to increased doses to provide equivalent or more exciting thrills.
Religious or spiritual factors: Throughout history people have used drugs to enhance their spirituality or become more godlike. Too often the drug becomes the object or worship rather than the god or spiritual essence being sought. Though many people have tried, the spiritual realm has not been achieved through use of mind-altering drugs.
Altered states: Drugs are sometimes used to increase the intensity of a mood or create a state of euphoria. Some people attempt to enhance physical performance or stimulate artistic creativity. Evidence indicates that perceptions of improved abilities are false.
Rebellion and alienation: The use of drugs can be a deliberate act of rebellion against social values, especially the values of parents or society. Individuals who experience extreme pressures and have difficulty coping frequently turn to drugs as an escape. This includes college-age students facing academic pressure and increased personal freedom.
Peer pressure and gout entry: People who have a great desire to feel accepted often use drugs to demonstrate their sameness with other members of the group. Feeling accepted, modeling behavior after someone who is admired, and attempting to create an identity or specific image are reasons offered for drug use. Self-esteem seems to be a vital component. Individuals with high self-esteem see themselves as competent, successful, self-sufficient, accepting, outgoing, and wall rounded. People with low self-esteem tend to feel isolated and unloved and have a reduced capacity for joy or self-fulfillment. In the attempt to magically overcome these sensations and perceptions, many people turn to drugs.
Curiosity: Often, individuals first experiment with drugs out of curiosity-the desire to see what using the drug feels like or what the attraction is for chronic users. Although curiosity is normal and healthy in many circumstances, the primary problem associated with experimentation with drugs out of curiosity is the inability to know how a drug will affect any one human being. Whereas friends may consider the effects of a drug pleasurable, someone else may have a different, occasionally fatal, reaction. Most people try alcohol during their life. For most people this creates no problem; they can choose to use t or not use it. For some people one act of curiosity can use it. For some people one act of curiosity can result in the disease of alcoholism.
What is Heat Stroke Are you looking for What is Heat Stroke? Here is some definition about What is Heat Stroke. Heat-related illnesses, such as heat exhaustion and heatstroke, occur when your body can't keep itself cool. As the air temperature rises, your body stays cool when your sweat evaporates. On hot, humid days, the evaporation of sweat is slowed by the increased moisture in the air. When sweating isn't enough to cool your body, your body temperature rises, and you may become ill.
Transient ischemic attacks Symptoms and Treatment Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) are neurogical deficits (such as loss of vision in one eye, inability to speak, paralysis, or weakness of one side of the body) of sudden onset that last for less than 24 hours. Although they are symptomatically similar to minor strokes, they do no discernible lasting damage to brain function.
The major importance of TIAs is their role as a predictor of stroke. When a person describes a ďlight strokeĒ, it is often a TIA that is meant. If left untreated, TIAs can indeed lead to major strokes, with permanent damage to all parts affected.
Best countries for Plastic Surgery Are you looking for Best countries for plastic surgery?
Cosmetic plastic surgery includes surgical and nonsurgical procedures that reshape normal structures of the body in order to improve appearance and self-esteem. Healthy individuals with a positive outlook and realistic expectations are appropriate candidates for cosmetic procedures. Plastic surgery is a personal choice and should be done for yourself, not to fulfill someone else's desires or to try to fit an ideal image. Because it is elective, cosmetic surgery is usually not covered by health insurance.
Gangrene Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Stomach Cancer Symptoms and Signs The stomach is a hollow organ in the upper abdomen, under the ribs.
It's part of the digestive system. Food moves from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach. In the stomach, the food becomes liquid. Muscles in the stomach wall push the liquid into the small intestine.
Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that make up tissues. Tissues make up the organs of the body.
Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place.
Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old or damaged cells do not die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth, polyp, or tumor.
Plantar Fasciitis Treatment The plantar fascia can be involved with plantar fasciitis as it inserts into the calcaneus and also the Achilles tendon as it inserts into the back of the calcaneus. These are very common problems. If there is any sense that it is chronic inflammatory in nature and there are other systems involved, really think of a spondyloarthropathy because these areas are very commonly involved with things like ankylosing spondylitis and the like. But I do see patients occasionally and thatís all they have. They just have Achilles tendonitis or plantar fasciitis. Sometimes you can even get bursal inflammation although itís very difficult to differentiate from direct tendon involvement. But plantar fasciitis, again the most common situation I see is someone who walks a lot. Mail carriers. They start out with a 50 pound bag of mail and itís hard on their feet. They just walk around and deliver mail all day. But anybody who is on their feet a lot, walking, carrying extra weight, and the pain is usually in the sort of medial aspect of the bottom of the calcaneus. Itís not dead center, because thatís not where the plantar fascia inserts.
Cymothoa Exigua in Human and Life Cycle Cymothoa exigua is a tiny crustacean that sneaks up on a fish (specifically, a red snapper) and works its way in through the gills. Typical parasite behavior so far.
Then it attaches itself to the base of the fish's tongue, the tongue evidently being the tastiest part of the fish (get it!?). The parasite uses its claws to dig into the tongue and drink the fish's blood--and that's just the beginning
Colorectal Cancer symptoms in Women Are you looking for colorectal cancer symptoms in women? Here is some article about colorectal cancer symptoms in women.
The colon is the part of the digestive system where the waste material is stored. The rectum is the end of the colon adjacent to the anus. Together, they form a long, muscular tube called the large intestine (also known as the large bowel). Tumors of the colon and rectum are growths arising from the inner wall of the large intestine. Benign tumors of the large intestine are called polyps. Malignant tumors of the large intestine are called cancers.
Local Treatment of Allergic Dermatitis Most Persons who suffer with allergic dermatitis have accumulated numberless lotions, salves, ointments, and other local preparations. These have either been prescribed for them or suggested to them by their family or friends. For the most part, the effects of these long-continued local applications is to further irritate and traumatize the skin, so that in the end more harm than good is done. First take away all these various drugs and prescribe only such bland preparations as are least likely to injure the skin. These must be cautiously and carefully applied, observing their changing effect. Indeed, at times it is necessary to use the preparation of one area of the skin only, such as one arm or one leg, and observe the difference between the dermatitis on that are and on the area of the body where no preparation has been used.
Vulvar Disease In addition to inspection, several other diagnostic aids are available. Papanicolaou (Pap) smears of the vulva, although generally not obtained, may be useful for ulcerated lesions. A saline-moistened tongue depressor or similar spatula is used to scrape the lesion for a specimen, which is then smeared on a slide for fixation.
The toluidine blue test is also helpful, particularly for selecting biopsy sites in cases of suspected vulvar dystrophy. The test is carried out by applying a 1% aqueous solution of toluidine blue, which is a nuclear stain, to the entire vulva, allowing 1 to 2 minutes for drying, then gently wiping the excess dye away with a cotton-tipped swab saturated with 1% acetic acid. Areas that retain the blue dye should be biopsied, but nonmalignant ulcers and fissures may stain blue.
Thyroid Cancer Symptoms and Treatment hyroid carcinoma is common in all age groups, and it is especially in patients who have received any radiation therapy to the face, neck, or upper chest. It is rarely associated with functional abnormalities. Papillary carcinoma is the most common and least aggressive thyroid malignancy. Pure papillary or mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma represents about 70% of all thyroid cancers. Follicular carcinoma represents about 15% of thyroid malignancies but is more likely to have distant metastases. Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas are classified as differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Medullary thyroid carcinoma represents less than 5% of thyroid cancers and tends to metastasize locally. Of all cases of medullary thyroid cancer, about one-third are sporadic, one-third are familial occurrences, and another third are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type II. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma represents only about 1% of thyroid malignancies. Other malignancies involving the thyroid include lymphomas and metastases (especially melanoma, breast, renal, and bronchogenic carcinomas).
Anxiety As A Response To Stress Stress is the wear and tear that life causes on the body. It occurs when a person has difficulty dealing with life situations, problems and goals. Each person handles stress differently; one person can thrive in a situation that creates great distress for another. For example, may people view public speaking as scary, but for teachers and actors it is an everyday, enjoyable experience. Marriage, children, airplanes, snakes, a new job, a new school, and leaving home are examples of stress-causing events.
Hans Selye (1956, 1974), an endocrinologist, identified the physiologic aspects of stress, which he labeled the General Adaptation Syndrome. He used laboratory animals to assess biologic system changes the stages of the bodyís physical responses to pain, heat, toxins, and restraint; and later the mindís emotional responses to real or perceived stressors. He determined three stages of reaction to stress: