A drug is any chemical substance that can alter the structure and function of a living organism. People use drugs for many reasons. Some individuals need drugs for health reason-to maintain a normal life or to alleviate specific symptoms or complications of diseases or other conditions. Other people indulge in drugs to alter their moods.
Reasons people use drugs
Researchers have identified several reasons people use drugs:
Medical purposes: Medicines are used for a wide range of purpose - from reducing symptoms of the cold and flu or treating headaches to lowering blood pressure or cholesterol to extend life and maintain quality of life. Because of chemical imbalances, individuals who suffer from condition, such as bipolar disorder or depression, would be unable to live normal lives without the availability of certain drugs. Methylphenidate (Ritalin), commonly used as a stimulant illegally, is also used to treat adults and children who have attention-deficit disorder. When used in this capacity, Ritalin frequently helps them focus on and complete tasks-something they frequently have difficulty doing without medical intervention. Drugs as medicines, although dangerous even under a physician's care when misused or prescribed incorrectly, are invaluable to many for maintenance of an active, successful lifestyle.
Recreational/social facilitation : People frequently use drugs that they believe will lessen the tension associated with social encounters. Marijuana and alcohol are particularly popular in social situations. Potential dangers of using drugs for this purpose include mental dependency on the drug and an inability to cope with social events without using the drug.
Sensation seeking: Some people enjoy taking risks. For them, drug fulfill the need for excitement and adventure. Others turn to drugs out of boredom or a sense of inadequancy in their lives. They are seeking sensations of pleasure that are artificially induced. Unfortunately, when drug tolerance occurs or they do not find the type of "high" they were looking for, users frequently turn to increasingly dangerous drugs or to increased doses to provide equivalent or more exciting thrills.
Religious or spiritual factors: Throughout history people have used drugs to enhance their spirituality or become more godlike. Too often the drug becomes the object or worship rather than the god or spiritual essence being sought. Though many people have tried, the spiritual realm has not been achieved through use of mind-altering drugs.
Altered states: Drugs are sometimes used to increase the intensity of a mood or create a state of euphoria. Some people attempt to enhance physical performance or stimulate artistic creativity. Evidence indicates that perceptions of improved abilities are false.
Rebellion and alienation: The use of drugs can be a deliberate act of rebellion against social values, especially the values of parents or society. Individuals who experience extreme pressures and have difficulty coping frequently turn to drugs as an escape. This includes college-age students facing academic pressure and increased personal freedom.
Peer pressure and gout entry: People who have a great desire to feel accepted often use drugs to demonstrate their sameness with other members of the group. Feeling accepted, modeling behavior after someone who is admired, and attempting to create an identity or specific image are reasons offered for drug use. Self-esteem seems to be a vital component. Individuals with high self-esteem see themselves as competent, successful, self-sufficient, accepting, outgoing, and wall rounded. People with low self-esteem tend to feel isolated and unloved and have a reduced capacity for joy or self-fulfillment. In the attempt to magically overcome these sensations and perceptions, many people turn to drugs.
Curiosity: Often, individuals first experiment with drugs out of curiosity-the desire to see what using the drug feels like or what the attraction is for chronic users. Although curiosity is normal and healthy in many circumstances, the primary problem associated with experimentation with drugs out of curiosity is the inability to know how a drug will affect any one human being. Whereas friends may consider the effects of a drug pleasurable, someone else may have a different, occasionally fatal, reaction. Most people try alcohol during their life. For most people this creates no problem; they can choose to use t or not use it. For some people one act of curiosity can use it. For some people one act of curiosity can result in the disease of alcoholism.
Arteries, Veins, Capillaries and The Heart The blood away which carry the bright red oxygenated blood away from the heart are called arteries. The large arteries, which receive the blood directly from form the heart, branch repeatedly until every part of the body is served by one or more of them.
The blood returns from all parts of the body to the heart through veins. There are many more veins than arteries throughout the body. The veins gradually unite to form larger veins as they approach the heart.
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Approach fo Allergy There is little doubt that emotional factors have a profound effect upon an allergic condition. The reverse is also true, allergic disease affect the patient emotionally. A patient who suffers with a long-standing chronic condition like asthma, or a patient whose normal life is seriously interfered with during a good portion of the year because of hay fever, is bound to become nervous and upset. These patients develop emotional disturbances which in turn contribute to or aggravate their condition.
Is smoking harmful during pregnancy Your smoking can kill your baby. And, if the baby does not die, your smoking can cause such significant brain and body damage that your child will never be able to function as a normal, healthy person.
The earliest effect of the smoking related to pregnancy is infertility. People who smoke are less likely to get pregnant that people who do not smoke. If you do get pregnant, there is a do related effect on miscarriage. The more cigarettes you smoke, the more likely you are to miscarry).
Retrograde uterus pregnancy and fertility What is retrograde uterus definition?A retroverted uterus (tilted uterus, tipped uterus) is a uterus that is tilted backwards instead of forwards. This is in contrast to the slightly "anteverted" uterus that most women have, which is tipped forward toward the bladder, with the anterior end slightly concave.
Between 1 in 3 and 1-in-5 women (depending on the source) has a retroverted uterus, which is tipped backwards towards the spine.
Gout diet recipes Gout, a painful form of arthritis, has long been associated with diet, particularly overindulgence in meat, seafood and alcohol. As a result, gout treatment used to include severe dietary restrictions, which made the gout diet hard to stick to. Fortunately, newer medications to treat gout have reduced the need for a strict gout diet.
A gout diet reduces your intake of foods that are high in purines, which helps control your body's production of uric acid. If you're overweight or obese, lose weight. However, avoid fasting and rapid weight loss because these can promote a gout attack. Drink plenty of fluids to help flush uric acid from your body. Also avoid high-protein diets, which can cause you to produce too much uric acid (hyperuricemia).
Allergic Headache Certain types of headache are allergic in origin. In these cases patients develop headaches of variable severity when exposed to substances to which they are allergic. These may be food or inhalants. The symptoms vary with the person. As a rule, the pain is deep and sometimes throbbing, or it may acquire the characteristics of so-called sick headache or migraine. Not all instances of migraine are allergic in nature. When one realizes that chronic headache interfere with the patient's happiness and productivity, a serious effort must be made in each case to discover it cause. It must by no means assumed that every case of headache is allergic, because most frequently the cause of headache is something other than allergy. In the case of chronic recurrent headache one must always rule out some serious systemic condition like kidney disease, anemia, infection, or brain
Hernia Symptoms and treatment A hernia is an abnormal protrusion of part of an organ through the tissues that normally contain it. In this condition, a weak spot or opening in a body wall, often due to laxity of the muscles, allows part of the organ to protrude. A hernia may develop in almost any part of the body; however, the muscles of the abdominal wall are most commonly affected.
Types of hernias
A hernia can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (often the result of stress or strain on the body wall). Although there are many types of hernias, the following are common :
Umbilical hernia-protrusion of a loop of intestine into the groin (where the folds of abdominal flesh meet the thighs). This type of hernia, which accounts for about 75 percent of all abdominal hernias, is often the result of increased pressured in the abdomen because of lifting, coughing, or straining.
Scrotal hernia-an inguinal hernia that has passed into the scrotum (the sac containing the testes).
Femoral hernia-protrusion of a loop of tissue into the femoral canal, which carries nerves and blood vessels from the abdomen into the upper thigh/groin area. This type of hernia is more common in women than in men.
Incisional hernia-a hernia that occurs at the site of a surgical incision. This type of hernia is often due to strain on healing tissues due to excessive muscular effort, lifting, coughing, or extreme pressure.
Hiatal hernia-protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm and into the chest.
Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treatment Guidelines What is Myelodysplastic syndromes? Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is a term for a group of disorders that cause the bone marrow to produce an inadequate number of healthy blood cells — red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. In MDS, cells in the bone marrow responsible for making blood cells (stem cells) don't mature, don't make enough blood cells or make defective cells.
Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treatment
The prognosis depends on the following:
Whether the myelodysplastic syndrome occurred after chemotherapy or radiation therapy for another disease.
The number of blast cells in the bone marrow.
Whether one or more types of blood cells are affected.
Certain changes in the chromosomes.
Treatment options depend on the following:
Whether the myelodysplastic syndrome occurred after chemotherapy or radiation therapy for another disease.
Whether the myelodysplastic syndrome has progressed after being treated.
The age and general health of the patient.
Heart Failure Physical Examination Your medical history includes anything about your past and present health-conditions you used to have or conditions you have now. Tell your doctor about medical problems of any type, including any surgery that you have had. When giving your doctor your medical history, be complete and detailed in your descriptions. Even if an illness is completely gone or does not seem important to you, knowing about that problem may help your doctor diagnose heart failure. Also, knowing all of your past and present medical problems will help your doctor decide the best way to care for your condition.
Local Treatment of Allergic Dermatitis Most Persons who suffer with allergic dermatitis have accumulated numberless lotions, salves, ointments, and other local preparations. These have either been prescribed for them or suggested to them by their family or friends. For the most part, the effects of these long-continued local applications is to further irritate and traumatize the skin, so that in the end more harm than good is done. First take away all these various drugs and prescribe only such bland preparations as are least likely to injure the skin. These must be cautiously and carefully applied, observing their changing effect. Indeed, at times it is necessary to use the preparation of one area of the skin only, such as one arm or one leg, and observe the difference between the dermatitis on that are and on the area of the body where no preparation has been used.
Emphysema Life Expectancy Stages Emphysema occurs when the air sacs in your lungs are gradually destroyed, making you progressively more short of breath. Emphysema is one of several diseases known collectively as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema.
As it worsens, emphysema turns the spherical air sacs — clustered like bunches of grapes — into large, irregular pockets with gaping holes in their inner walls. This reduces the surface area of the lungs and, in turn, the amount of oxygen that reaches your bloodstream.
New Treatments for Newborn Neurology Hypoxic ischemic injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity.
Usually it is a combination of hypoxia and ischemia that basically results in
decreased supply of oxygen to the tissue, and that’s the cause of it.
Hypercapnia and acidosis also contribute significantly to the development of
hypoxic ischemic injury. There’s also biochemical and cellular level changes
that occur, such as increased glycolysis. You have lactic acid production, you
have decreased ATP production as well and you have free radical production, and
therefore accumulation of extracellular potassium and intracellular calcium.
They occur frequently in the different parts during the pregnancy and the labor
and delivery process that accounts for this. Twenty percent is noted during the
antepartum, about 35% is noted in the intrapartum period and there are other
factors, such as combination factors, both intrapartum and antepartum that
occurs about 35%. And post-natally only 10%. Obviously what we mean by
postnatal, it means after the delivery. It occurs in up to 1.5% of live birth
infants, and the incidence is greater … it the child is greater than 36 weeks
age of gestation and therefore more or less a full term child - full term being
37 to 40 weeks age of gestation - the incidence is quite low. It’s only 9%.
However, in children less than 28 weeks or between 24 weeks to 35 weeks, the
incidence can be as high as 80%.
Atkins diet plan food list Are you looking for atkins diet plan food list? The Atkins diet is great for dieters suffering from hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, and those suffering from diabetes (high blood sugar). When the human body is on an all protein diet, the hunger cravings are less, and the body's conversion of glucose is steadier because it takes the body longer to break down fats and proteins than it takes for sugars and carbs. The consumption of sugar spikes the sugar level up about 20 minutes after eating, while a steak or beef patty would take much longer to digest.