A drug is any chemical substance that can alter the structure and function of a living organism. People use drugs for many reasons. Some individuals need drugs for health reason-to maintain a normal life or to alleviate specific symptoms or complications of diseases or other conditions. Other people indulge in drugs to alter their moods.
Reasons people use drugs
Researchers have identified several reasons people use drugs:
Medical purposes: Medicines are used for a wide range of purpose - from reducing symptoms of the cold and flu or treating headaches to lowering blood pressure or cholesterol to extend life and maintain quality of life. Because of chemical imbalances, individuals who suffer from condition, such as bipolar disorder or depression, would be unable to live normal lives without the availability of certain drugs. Methylphenidate (Ritalin), commonly used as a stimulant illegally, is also used to treat adults and children who have attention-deficit disorder. When used in this capacity, Ritalin frequently helps them focus on and complete tasks-something they frequently have difficulty doing without medical intervention. Drugs as medicines, although dangerous even under a physician's care when misused or prescribed incorrectly, are invaluable to many for maintenance of an active, successful lifestyle.
Recreational/social facilitation : People frequently use drugs that they believe will lessen the tension associated with social encounters. Marijuana and alcohol are particularly popular in social situations. Potential dangers of using drugs for this purpose include mental dependency on the drug and an inability to cope with social events without using the drug.
Sensation seeking: Some people enjoy taking risks. For them, drug fulfill the need for excitement and adventure. Others turn to drugs out of boredom or a sense of inadequancy in their lives. They are seeking sensations of pleasure that are artificially induced. Unfortunately, when drug tolerance occurs or they do not find the type of "high" they were looking for, users frequently turn to increasingly dangerous drugs or to increased doses to provide equivalent or more exciting thrills.
Religious or spiritual factors: Throughout history people have used drugs to enhance their spirituality or become more godlike. Too often the drug becomes the object or worship rather than the god or spiritual essence being sought. Though many people have tried, the spiritual realm has not been achieved through use of mind-altering drugs.
Altered states: Drugs are sometimes used to increase the intensity of a mood or create a state of euphoria. Some people attempt to enhance physical performance or stimulate artistic creativity. Evidence indicates that perceptions of improved abilities are false.
Rebellion and alienation: The use of drugs can be a deliberate act of rebellion against social values, especially the values of parents or society. Individuals who experience extreme pressures and have difficulty coping frequently turn to drugs as an escape. This includes college-age students facing academic pressure and increased personal freedom.
Peer pressure and gout entry: People who have a great desire to feel accepted often use drugs to demonstrate their sameness with other members of the group. Feeling accepted, modeling behavior after someone who is admired, and attempting to create an identity or specific image are reasons offered for drug use. Self-esteem seems to be a vital component. Individuals with high self-esteem see themselves as competent, successful, self-sufficient, accepting, outgoing, and wall rounded. People with low self-esteem tend to feel isolated and unloved and have a reduced capacity for joy or self-fulfillment. In the attempt to magically overcome these sensations and perceptions, many people turn to drugs.
Curiosity: Often, individuals first experiment with drugs out of curiosity-the desire to see what using the drug feels like or what the attraction is for chronic users. Although curiosity is normal and healthy in many circumstances, the primary problem associated with experimentation with drugs out of curiosity is the inability to know how a drug will affect any one human being. Whereas friends may consider the effects of a drug pleasurable, someone else may have a different, occasionally fatal, reaction. Most people try alcohol during their life. For most people this creates no problem; they can choose to use t or not use it. For some people one act of curiosity can use it. For some people one act of curiosity can result in the disease of alcoholism.
Ectopic pregnancy Causes, Symptoms and Treatment An ectopic pregnancy is one in which the fertilized egg develops outside the uterus. Usually it occurs in one of the two fallopian tubes, through which the egg travels from the ovary to the uterus. (In that case, it is also known as a tubal pregnancy.) However, on rare occasions, the fertilized egg starts to develop in the ovary, on the cervix, or attached to the outside of a nearby organ in the abdominal cavity. (the ovary is not directly connected to the fallopian tube. There is a slight gap, which sometimes permits an egg to enter the abdominal cavity.)
Cholera History Cholera has killed millions of people since it emerged out of the filthy water and living conditions of Calcutta India in the early 1800�s. Since then, there have been a total of eight cholera pandemics. A cholera pandemic is a cholera epidemic that can last many years or even a few decades at a time, and that spreads to many countries and across continents and oceans. The first cholera pandemic of 1817-1823 spread from India to Southeast Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East and Russia leaving hundreds of thousands of people dead in its wake. The recent cholera epidemic in Pohnpei, which was part of the eighth and current pandemic, added some more sad numbers to the tragic statistics of cholera. In this year, since January there have been cholera outbreaks in Peru, southern Africa and the Marshall Islands.
Appendicitis Diagnosis and Physical examination About 10% of the population will develop acute appendicitis during their lifetime, and the disorder most commonly develops in the teens and twenties. Appendicitis is caused by appendiceal obstruction, mucosal ischemia, infection, and perforation. Escherichia coli occurs in 80%, Bacteroides fragilis in 70%, and Pseudomonas spp in 40%.
Risk Reduction for Developing Cancer Because cancer will probably continue to be the second most common cause of death among adults, it is important for you to explore ways of reducing your risk of developing cancer. The following factors, which could make you vulnerable to cancer, can be controlled or at least recognized.
Symptoms of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, behavioral
disturbances, and impaired social function (without any mental status
changes). Prevalence is 1%, manifesting earlier (18–25) and more severely in
males and later (26–45) in females, with an equal male-to-female ratio (1:1).
Prevalence is higher in the presence of a + family history (10% if there is a
sibling or parent with schizophrenia).
Angina Pectoris Causes The most common symptom of coronary artery disease is angina pectoris, chest pain caused by insufficient oxygen getting to the muscles of the heart. Angina is usually described as a tightness, pressure, or dull aching pain under the breastbone and on the left side of the chest. Often it is described as "feeling like someone's sitting on my chest." The pain may radiate from the chest to the left arm or the left side of the jaw, and occasionally to the back.
The symptoms of angina are experienced in different ways by different people, but an individual usually experiences the same symptoms every time an attack occurs. Many experience sweating, shortness of breath, chills, or nausea during an attack. Others have no symptoms but a mild chest discomfort. Angina usually resolves five to ten minutes after exertion stops.
How to Managing Your Weight Managing your weight is not an easy task. To ensure success, you must a real change in the way you eat and consider it a lifelong commitment rather than a diet. Analyzing where you are right now and then taking steps outlined below will help you lose excess weight
Esselstyn diet rules and recipes Are you looking for Esselstyn diet rules and recipes? You should know about the success Dr. Esselstyn has had with diet and, if necessary, minimal use of cholesterol-lowering drugs.
His diet rules are simple—and strict: All vegetables, fruit, whole grains, beans and lentils are allowed; but no meat, chicken, fish, eggs, refined grains, dairy products (even skim milk), oil, nuts or avocados. In short, eliminate all fats except those found in plant-based foods; no animal foods or concentrated fats (oil, nuts). His aim is to avoid any food known to cause or promote vascular disease. If you are free of heart disease, walnuts in moderation are permitted. Esselstyn acknowledges that the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish are essential to artery health and other bodily functions, but prefers to use plant sources, such as flaxseed.
Blood Pressure Definition Classification and Measurement Devices Blood pressure definition
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. During each heartbeat, BP varies between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure. The mean BP, due to pumping by the heart and resistance to flow in blood vessels, decreases as the circulating blood moves away from the heart through arteries.
Acute Abdomen Symptoms and Medications Clinical evaluation of abdominal pain
Onset and duration of the pain
The duration, acuity, and progression of pain should be assessed, and the exact location of maximal pain at onset and at present should be determined. The pain should be characterized as diffuse or localized. Time course of pain should be characterized as either constant, intermittent, decreasing, or increasing.
Acute exacerbation of longstanding pain suggests a complication of chronic disease such as peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or cancer. Sudden, intense pain often represents an intraabdominal catastrophe
(eg, ruptured aneurysm, mesenteric infarction, or intestinal perforation). Colicky abdominal pain of intestinal or ureteral obstruction tends to have a gradual onset.
Intermittent pain is associated with spasmodic increases in pressure within hollow organs.
Bowel ischemia initially causes diffuse crampy pain due to spasmodic contractions of the bowel. The pain becomes constant and more intense with bowel necrosis, causing pain out of proportion to physical findings. A history of intestinal angina can be elicited in half of patients.
Constant pain. Biliary colic from cystic or common bile duct obstruction usually is constant. Chronic pancreatitis causes constant pain. Constant pain also suggests parietal peritoneal inflammation, mucosal inflammatory conditions, or neoplasms.
Appendicitis initially causes intermittent periumbilical pain. Gradually the pain becomes constant in the right lower quadrant as peritoneal inflammation develops.
Arrhythmias Treatment and Types A disturbance in the rhythm of the heart is termed arrhythmia and can range from a mild “skipped beat” to a life-threatening failure to pump. The later is called ventricular fibrillation, and it is the most common cause of cardiac arrest, in which the heart suddenly stops beating. Death can follow in minutes unless medical help is provided immediately. People who have had a heart attack or who are elderly are at a much higher risk of developing a life-threatening arrhythmia.
In ventricular fibrillation, the heart’s electrical activity becomes disordered. As a result, the heart’s lower (pumping) chambers rapidly contract in an unsynchronized way. In effect, the ventricles flutter rather than beat, and the heart pumps little or no blood. Symptoms may include palpitations, lightheadedness, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, or loss of consciousness. If a more normal rhythm is not restored within three to five minutes, the patient will suffer brain and heart damage and will die.
Heartbeat irregularities Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Heartbeat irregularities (also called cardiac arrhythmias) are deviations from the normal, steady beating of the heart.
Minor irregularities in the heartbeat are common, but more serious arrhythmias can lead to fainting, angina pectoris, or heart attack. The most devastating heartbeat irregularity is called ventricular fibrillation, which occurs when the normally steady pumping action of the heart is reduced action of the heart is reduced to a useless quivering.
What is oxycodone and the side effects What is oxycodone? and what are oxycodone side effects? Oxycodone (OxyContin and other brand names) is an opioid analgesic medication synthesized from opium-derived thebaine. It was developed in 1916 in Germany, as one of several new semi-synthetic opioids in an attempt to improve on the existing opioids: morphine, diacetylmorphine (heroin), and codeine.