A drug is any chemical substance that can alter the structure and function of a living organism. People use drugs for many reasons. Some individuals need drugs for health reason-to maintain a normal life or to alleviate specific symptoms or complications of diseases or other conditions. Other people indulge in drugs to alter their moods.
Reasons people use drugs
Researchers have identified several reasons people use drugs:
Medical purposes: Medicines are used for a wide range of purpose - from reducing symptoms of the cold and flu or treating headaches to lowering blood pressure or cholesterol to extend life and maintain quality of life. Because of chemical imbalances, individuals who suffer from condition, such as bipolar disorder or depression, would be unable to live normal lives without the availability of certain drugs. Methylphenidate (Ritalin), commonly used as a stimulant illegally, is also used to treat adults and children who have attention-deficit disorder. When used in this capacity, Ritalin frequently helps them focus on and complete tasks-something they frequently have difficulty doing without medical intervention. Drugs as medicines, although dangerous even under a physician's care when misused or prescribed incorrectly, are invaluable to many for maintenance of an active, successful lifestyle.
Recreational/social facilitation : People frequently use drugs that they believe will lessen the tension associated with social encounters. Marijuana and alcohol are particularly popular in social situations. Potential dangers of using drugs for this purpose include mental dependency on the drug and an inability to cope with social events without using the drug.
Sensation seeking: Some people enjoy taking risks. For them, drug fulfill the need for excitement and adventure. Others turn to drugs out of boredom or a sense of inadequancy in their lives. They are seeking sensations of pleasure that are artificially induced. Unfortunately, when drug tolerance occurs or they do not find the type of "high" they were looking for, users frequently turn to increasingly dangerous drugs or to increased doses to provide equivalent or more exciting thrills.
Religious or spiritual factors: Throughout history people have used drugs to enhance their spirituality or become more godlike. Too often the drug becomes the object or worship rather than the god or spiritual essence being sought. Though many people have tried, the spiritual realm has not been achieved through use of mind-altering drugs.
Altered states: Drugs are sometimes used to increase the intensity of a mood or create a state of euphoria. Some people attempt to enhance physical performance or stimulate artistic creativity. Evidence indicates that perceptions of improved abilities are false.
Rebellion and alienation: The use of drugs can be a deliberate act of rebellion against social values, especially the values of parents or society. Individuals who experience extreme pressures and have difficulty coping frequently turn to drugs as an escape. This includes college-age students facing academic pressure and increased personal freedom.
Peer pressure and gout entry: People who have a great desire to feel accepted often use drugs to demonstrate their sameness with other members of the group. Feeling accepted, modeling behavior after someone who is admired, and attempting to create an identity or specific image are reasons offered for drug use. Self-esteem seems to be a vital component. Individuals with high self-esteem see themselves as competent, successful, self-sufficient, accepting, outgoing, and wall rounded. People with low self-esteem tend to feel isolated and unloved and have a reduced capacity for joy or self-fulfillment. In the attempt to magically overcome these sensations and perceptions, many people turn to drugs.
Curiosity: Often, individuals first experiment with drugs out of curiosity-the desire to see what using the drug feels like or what the attraction is for chronic users. Although curiosity is normal and healthy in many circumstances, the primary problem associated with experimentation with drugs out of curiosity is the inability to know how a drug will affect any one human being. Whereas friends may consider the effects of a drug pleasurable, someone else may have a different, occasionally fatal, reaction. Most people try alcohol during their life. For most people this creates no problem; they can choose to use t or not use it. For some people one act of curiosity can use it. For some people one act of curiosity can result in the disease of alcoholism.
Reproductive health care By Felicia H. Stewart, MD; Wayne C. Shields; Ann C. Hwang, MD
In the long aftermath of war, the people of both Iraq and
Afghanistan are struggling to rebuild their nations.
Molar Pregnancy Molar pregnancies, invasive molar pregnancies, and malignant molar pregnancies are growths that result from abnormal pregnancies referred to as trophoblastic disease. Doctors often use the term mole to describe some of these problems; this has nothing whatever to do with a mole on the surface of the skin. The term trophoblastic disease is derived from the name of the trophoblast cell, the cell that makes up the placenta.
Best cold medicine for adult What is the Best cold medicine for adult?
Cold medicine can be a help and a hindrance in our lives when we are sick. Though it won't cure your cold or flu, it can improve your symptoms. But it also can have side effects. Also, which one do you choose? It can be quite confusing. Here you will find out about different cold medicines, how they work, examples of different products in each category and what they are used for.
Prescription diet pills list and review Prescription diet pills aren't for the person who wants to shed a few pounds to fit into a holiday party dress or tuxedo. Only people who are "obese" (those who are 30 percent over their ideal weight, or have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or more - see National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute: Healthy Weight to calculate your BMI) or who have a history of high blood pressure or diabetes are good candidates for prescription diet medications, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Dementia stages symptoms Are you looking for dementia stages symptoms? Dementia is a serious loss of cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. It may be static, the result of a unique global brain injury, or progressive, resulting in long-term decline due to damage or disease in the body. Although dementia is far more common in the geriatric population, it can occur before the age of 65, in which case it is termed "early onset dementia".
Symptoms of dementia can be classified as either reversible or irreversible, depending upon the etiology of the disease. Less than 10% of cases of dementia are due to causes that may presently be reversed with treatment. Causes include many different specific disease processes, in the same way that symptoms of organ dysfunction such as shortness of breath, jaundice, or pain are attributable to many etiologies.
Function of Liver Do you looking for article of function of liver? here is some articles about function of liver.
The liver is a large, meaty organ that sits on the right side of the belly. Weighing about 3 pounds, the liver is reddish-brown in color and feels rubbery to the touch. Normally you can't feel the liver, because it's protected by the rib cage.
Holoprosencephaly prognosis and pictures What is Holoprosencephaly definition? Holoprosencephaly (HPE, once known as arhinencephaly) is a cephalic disorder in which the prosencephalon (the forebrain of the embryo) fails to develop into two hemispheres. Normally, the forebrain is formed and the face begins to develop in the fifth and sixth weeks of human pregnancy. Hox genes, which guide placement of embryonic structures, fail to activate along the midline of the head, allowing structures that are normally paired on the left and right to merge. The condition also occurs in other species, as with Cy, the Cyclops kitten.
The condition can be mild or severe. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), "in most cases of holoprosencephaly, the malformations are so severe that babies die before birth.
Ovarian Cancer Staging and Treatment Are you looking for article about ovarian cancer staging and treatment? Here is good stuff about ovarian cancer staging and treatment.
The FIGO staging classification scheme for ovarian cancer is outlined in the box, page 42. The staging of advanced disease (spread throughout the abdomen) may be obvious to most physicians, but it is important for a surgeon to be meticulous in the staging of early ovarian cancer. In one study it was found that one third of patients referred with stage I or stage II disease were actually found to have stage III disease when the appropriate staging operation was performed. Similar results have been reported by other researchers.
Tobacco Products All tobacco products, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco (snuff and chewing tobacco), contain the drug nicotine. Nicotine is an addictive substances and an alkaloid poison. It affects the body by increasing heart and respiratory rates, elevating bolo pressure, increasing cardiac output and oxygen consumption, and constricting the the bronchi (the two main branches of the trachea that lead to the lungs). Nicotine is unhealed by anyone smoking a tobacco product. With smokeless tobacco, nicotine is absorbed through membranes of the mouth and cheek.
Allergy In Children The importance of an early diagnosis of allergy cannot be overemphasized. This diagnosis should be made in infancy or early childhood. This involves not only recognition that the condition affecting the child is allergic, but also a serious attempt at discovering the cause of the allergy. In doing this, however, one meets frequently with great deal of resistance by the mother because she does not want to see the child hurt, r because she somehow has a vague suspicion that skin testing endangers the child's health. The mother must understand the importance of such an early diagnosis. She must realize that delay is equivalent to neglect, and that neglect needlessly expose the child to the dangers of complications which may result from an untreated allergy a case of hay fever or case of asthma in a child. After a few years, however, this condition becomes complicated by nasal infection or by bronchitis, or by changes in the tissues of the lungs. These changes become refractory to treatment, so that even if the allergy is discovered, treatment of complications becomes difficult if not impossible. The mother must also understand that skin testing, if properly done, is not dangerous and does not affect the child's physical condition.
Talking with Your Doctor about Cancer Diagnosis Anytime there is suspicion of cancer, the person involved is likely to react with great anxiety, fear, and anger. Emotional distress is sometimes so intense that the person involved is unable to severe as his or he own best advocate in making critical health-care decisions. If you find it difficult to know what to ask your doctor on a routine exam, imagine how hard it would be to discuss life or death options for yourself or loved one. Having a list of important questions to ask when you appear at the doctorís office may help tremendously. Remember, your health-care provider should be your partner in making the best decisions for you. By actively challenging, questioning, and letting the physician know your wishes, difficult decisions may become easier.
Immunization for children and schedule You can see the diseases, vaccine-preventable diseases in this column and the number of cases reported prior to routine immunization and then the number of cases reported last year in this country. Youíll see a real dramatic decline in these vaccine-preventable diseases. Between 95 and 100% decline and this is due to routine immunization against these diseases. So this is a very dramatic success story, and because of this - this is from the MMWR published by the CDC - the top public health achievement of this century in this country is routine vaccination. So you can be assured that this is something that will be on the Boards because itís been such a tremendous success, a tremendous achievement and it is very important.
Concussion Symptoms and Treatment Concussion is an injury to the brain, caused by a violent jar or shock, such as a blow to the head. The force of the shock causes the brain to strike against the inside of the skull, producing temporary brain swelling and malfunctioning and often loss of consciousness. The shock may even be strong enough to cause cerebral contusion (bruising of brain tissue), cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding between covering of the brain and the skull or inside the brain covering), or formation of a hematoma (collection of clotted blood).