Are you looking for Lupus Symptoms in Women? Lupus is a clinical syndrome, the cause of which remains uncertain. It is a member of the family of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Lupus is more common in women, and certainly more common amongst the black and Chinese population. Itís clinical diversity is at least apparently matched by its serological diversity. The prevalence of lupus among Afro-Caribbeans is approximately five times that of a Caucasian population, and about 2 Ĺ times that of an Asian population.
Lupus Symptoms in Women
Lupus is far from confined to the skin. Indeed, we now recognize lupus in all its many systemic forms, much of the work being done in this century in various parts of the United States. At least 10% of the patients in my cohort who have been misdiagnoses as suffering from lymphomas or other malignant diseases. Virtually all lupus patients of course have musculoskeletal involvement, substantial number have dermatologic involvement, and a large number of patients also have gastrointestinal disease. Perhaps nowhere is the clinical diversity shown that in the cerebral system, where anything from migraine to madness may be a feature of lupus. About 30% of patients with lupus presenting to a rheumatologist will turn out to have significant renal disease. Perhaps 40% will have cardiopulmonary disease and virtually all patients with lupus have some hematological manifestation or another.
For the final clinical conundrum, Iíd like to draw your attention to thrombocytopenia. Iíd like to persuade you, at least to my mind, that there are at least three sorts of thrombocytopenia in patients with lupus. There are a group of patients who present with what is generally regarded as idiopathic disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, until other features of lupus turn up some years later. The platelet count can certainly get very low with these patients and clinical symptoms referable to thrombocytopenia are very common. In addition I recognize a group of patients with what I call chronic persistent thrombocytopenia within the context of lupus. The platelet count here often runs between 50 and 125, but the clinical symptoms referable to this platelet count are much rarer. There are a similar number of patients who have a dramatic fall in their platelet counts. This can occur over a matter of weeks or months and there are again frequent clinical features relevant to the platelet counts. How best to treat these patients? This is a review of a number of patients with lupus or the antiphospholipid syndrome, reviewed by _ and myself some years ago. In our cohort 16.5% of patients had thrombocytopenia as judged by a platelet count of less than 100; 7.5% of these patients had thrombocytopenia linked to antiphospholipid antibodies and 6% have very severe thrombocytopenia, counts less than 15 with symptoms.
If each of the eight organ systems, based largely on clinical questions - and I stress that, clinical questions - we define disease activity on this A-E basis. Where A represents action. The patient is severely ill, has sufficiently severe clinical features that they require major immunosuppressive therapy. B for beware, in the sense that we already knew the patient was active. C for contentment. There is low level activity, not requiring much in the way of therapy. D for discount, in the sense that the disease was once active but is no longer active. And E for no evidence of disease in the system now or previously. Hereís an example of the way that this works. Take, for example, the cardiovascular assessment. In a patient who presents with cardiac failure or symptomatic effusion and two of these other features listed here, from pleuropericardial pain due to friction rub, to deteriorating lung function. That patient will be categorized for their cardiovascular assessment as an A. In contrast, if only two of these criteria were present, they would be categorized as a B. If only one criteria or mild chest pain was present, they would get a C. A D if there was previous involvement but none current, and E for no previous involvement.
Now all of these patients were treated initially with large doses of corticosteroids and a significant number of them failed to respond. What should you do then? There is some conflicting data in the literature but we have found that splenectomy done relatively early to be a very helpful way of proceeding. So, of 17 patients that we identified during this time period, 12 had lupus, four had antiphospholipid syndrome, and one had three features of lupus and what we referred to as lupus-like. Nine of these patients were eventually given a splenectomy. Six of them responded completely, two of them gave a partial response, which unfortunately was not sustained, and one patient died of an unrelated carcinoma. The patient with the lupus-like disease also did extremely well. So for us, we tend to treat patients with thrombocytopenia, especially the acutely presenting ones, with corticosteroids. If that doesnít work within a few months we would proceed to splenectomy. We may use some IV Ig on the way.
That's some stuff about Lupus Symptoms in Women
Apnea in children and adults Apnea is strictly defined as the absence of breathing. The term is also used to refer to an interruption in breathing that occurs in some premature babies and also during the sleep of some children and adults.
Apnea in infants
The usual cause of apnea in infants is immaturity of the brain centers that regulate breathing. From time to time, the infant suddenly stops breathing completely and turns blue. If the baby is stimulated in some way (for example, by a flick of the finger on the bottom of the foot), he or she will usually start breathing normally at once. Seldom is it necessary to use first-aid measures or a mechanical respirator to restart breathing. However, because a history of apnea is one of the factors that may be associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), physicians sometimes recommend monitoring high-risk infants with equipment that sounds an alarm if any stoppage of breathing is detected. In some cases, the tendency toward apnea disappears a few week after birth, when the breathing control centers have matured.
Circulation System Function and Information The Heart, Blood, and Blood Vessels
Circulation is better understood if you are familiar with the basic anatomy and function of the heart. The heart consist o cardiac muscle and weighs between 8 and 10 ounces. It is about the size of a fist and lies in the center of the chest. The heart is divided into two halves, or pumps, by a wall (the septum), and each half is subdivided into an upper chamber (the atrium) and a lower chamber (he ventricle). The right heart, or pulmonary pump, receives deoxygenated blood from the tissues and transports it to the lungs so that carbon dioxide can be exchanged for a fresh supply of oxygen. From the lungs, the oxygen-rich blood is sent to the left heart, or systemic pump, so that the oxygenated blood can be transported to all the tissues or the body. Both pumps work simultaneously. The systemic pump carries the heavier workload of the two and thus has a more muscular ventricular wall.
Anxiety As A Response To Stress Stress is the wear and tear that life causes on the body. It occurs when a person has difficulty dealing with life situations, problems and goals. Each person handles stress differently; one person can thrive in a situation that creates great distress for another. For example, may people view public speaking as scary, but for teachers and actors it is an everyday, enjoyable experience. Marriage, children, airplanes, snakes, a new job, a new school, and leaving home are examples of stress-causing events.
Hans Selye (1956, 1974), an endocrinologist, identified the physiologic aspects of stress, which he labeled the General Adaptation Syndrome. He used laboratory animals to assess biologic system changes the stages of the bodyís physical responses to pain, heat, toxins, and restraint; and later the mindís emotional responses to real or perceived stressors. He determined three stages of reaction to stress:
Schistosomiasis Symptoms and Treatment A worm of a different sortóthe trematode, a flatworm of the class Trematoda, which includes the flukesóis responsible for schistosomiasis. This disease occurs in various forms if Africa, Asia, South America, and the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico. About 200 million people infected with schistosomiasis, also called bilharziasis.
Life Cycle of the Fluke Parasite
The process of infection by one kind of fluke involves free swimming larvae that penetrate the skin of a human who has entered waters containing the organism. The larvae follow the human bloodstream to the liver, where they develop into adult worms. The adult worms then move into the intestine or urinary bladder and are excreted with the urine or feces of the host. If they find their way to fresh water, the eggs hatch and the released organisms find their way to the body of a snail. Inside the snail they multiply into thousands of new larvae over a period of one or two months, after which they return to the water and invade the skin of another human. In this manner the fluke worm continues its life cycle, infecting more humans who venture into the contaminated waters.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder Narcissistic personality disorder are self centeredness and inflated self esteem, both beginning by early adulthood. Individual with the disorder typically overestimate their abilities, feel superior to others and demand administration they invariably expect special treatment.
Angina Pectoris Causes The most common symptom of coronary artery disease is angina pectoris, chest pain caused by insufficient oxygen getting to the muscles of the heart. Angina is usually described as a tightness, pressure, or dull aching pain under the breastbone and on the left side of the chest. Often it is described as "feeling like someone's sitting on my chest." The pain may radiate from the chest to the left arm or the left side of the jaw, and occasionally to the back.
The symptoms of angina are experienced in different ways by different people, but an individual usually experiences the same symptoms every time an attack occurs. Many experience sweating, shortness of breath, chills, or nausea during an attack. Others have no symptoms but a mild chest discomfort. Angina usually resolves five to ten minutes after exertion stops.
Pulmonary Hypoplasia and Congenital Renal Anomalies Caroline May, Anne Greenough
Arch Med Sci 2006; 2, 1: 6-9
The association of pulmonary hypoplasia with bilateral renal agenesis is well
recognised. It is important, however, for clinicians to be aware that pulmonary
hypoplasia does occur with other congenital renal anomalies and worsens the
Staying Fit during Pregnancy Like many other attitudes, our thinking on fitness during pregnancy has changed in recent years. No longer is a pregnant woman treated as fragile. A woman needs to be quite careful when carrying a baby, but these days a doctor is more likely to advise against a sedentary lifestyle for a healthy pregnant woman. Exercise during pregnancy can increase a womanís muscle strength, making delivery of the baby easier and faster. Exercise can also help control her weight, making it easier to get back to normal weight after delivery. The baby may benefit from the motherís exercise program as well.
Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Facts When you hear of cosmetic plastic surgery, what do you think of? A Hollywood star trying to delay the effects of aging? People who want to change the size of their stomachs, breasts, or other body parts because they see it done so easily on TV? Here is some facts about Cosmetic Plastic Surgery
Tips for Getting Pregnant You have been married for years? but have not had children. Maybe it helps you practice the following tips for couples to get pregnant.
What is Hay Fever and Remedies Are you looking for article about What is Hay Fever? and What are remedies for hay fever? Here is some good article about What is Hay Fever and Remedies for Hay Fever.
If you have hay fever, you're probably allergic to pollen. That's why you get symptoms in the spring, summer, or fall, when there's lots of pollen around.
Angina pectoris Sympstoms and Treatment Angina pectoris is a symptom of inadequate blood flow through the coronary arteries to the heart. It means chest pain (from the Latin angere meaning choke and pectoralis meaning chest). Angina pectoris occurs when some part of the heart muscle is not getting enough blood, usually during times of exertion or stress. At such times, the heart must work harder and faster. If one or more of the heartís arteries is narrowed by disease, the extra blood and oxygen required to nourish the heart cannot reach a region of the heart muscle. Angina pain is a signal that muscle cells are being strained by an insufficiency of oxygen; they are, in effect, gasping for air.
The attacks are usually brief, lasting only a matter of minutes, and they normally stop when the person rests. Angina pectoris seldom causes permanent damage to the heart muscle.
Treatment of heart failure due to systolic dysfunction A. Treatment of the underlying cardiac disease
Hypertension is the primary cause of HF in many patients.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta
blockers, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are
the preferred antihypertensive agents because they improve
survival in HF. Beta blockers can also provide anginal relief
in ischemic heart disease and rate control in with atrial
Renovascular disease. Testing for renovascular disease is
indicated if there is severe or refractory hypertension, a
sudden rise in blood pressure, or repeated episodes of flash
Ischemic heart disease. Coronary atherosclerosis is the
most common cause of cardiomyopathy, comprising 50 to
75 percent of patients with HF.
a. All patients with documented ischemic heart disease
should be treated medically for relief of angina and with
risk factor reduction, such as control of serum lipids.
b. Myocardial revascularization with angioplasty or bypass
surgery may improve exercise capacity and prognosis in
patients with hibernating myocardium. Revascularization
should also be considered for repeated episodes of acute
left ventricular dysfunction and flash pulmonary edema.
Valvular disease is the primary cause of HF 10 to 12 percent.
Other causes of heart failure: Alcohol abuse, cocaine
abuse, obstructive sleep apnea, nutritional deficiencies,
myocarditis, hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, thyroid disease,
and rheumatologic disorders such as systemic lupus