Are you looking for Lupus Symptoms in Women? Lupus is a clinical syndrome, the cause of which remains uncertain. It is a member of the family of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Lupus is more common in women, and certainly more common amongst the black and Chinese population. It’s clinical diversity is at least apparently matched by its serological diversity. The prevalence of lupus among Afro-Caribbeans is approximately five times that of a Caucasian population, and about 2 ½ times that of an Asian population.
Lupus Symptoms in Women
Lupus is far from confined to the skin. Indeed, we now recognize lupus in all its many systemic forms, much of the work being done in this century in various parts of the United States. At least 10% of the patients in my cohort who have been misdiagnoses as suffering from lymphomas or other malignant diseases. Virtually all lupus patients of course have musculoskeletal involvement, substantial number have dermatologic involvement, and a large number of patients also have gastrointestinal disease. Perhaps nowhere is the clinical diversity shown that in the cerebral system, where anything from migraine to madness may be a feature of lupus. About 30% of patients with lupus presenting to a rheumatologist will turn out to have significant renal disease. Perhaps 40% will have cardiopulmonary disease and virtually all patients with lupus have some hematological manifestation or another.
For the final clinical conundrum, I’d like to draw your attention to thrombocytopenia. I’d like to persuade you, at least to my mind, that there are at least three sorts of thrombocytopenia in patients with lupus. There are a group of patients who present with what is generally regarded as idiopathic disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, until other features of lupus turn up some years later. The platelet count can certainly get very low with these patients and clinical symptoms referable to thrombocytopenia are very common. In addition I recognize a group of patients with what I call chronic persistent thrombocytopenia within the context of lupus. The platelet count here often runs between 50 and 125, but the clinical symptoms referable to this platelet count are much rarer. There are a similar number of patients who have a dramatic fall in their platelet counts. This can occur over a matter of weeks or months and there are again frequent clinical features relevant to the platelet counts. How best to treat these patients? This is a review of a number of patients with lupus or the antiphospholipid syndrome, reviewed by _ and myself some years ago. In our cohort 16.5% of patients had thrombocytopenia as judged by a platelet count of less than 100; 7.5% of these patients had thrombocytopenia linked to antiphospholipid antibodies and 6% have very severe thrombocytopenia, counts less than 15 with symptoms.
If each of the eight organ systems, based largely on clinical questions - and I stress that, clinical questions - we define disease activity on this A-E basis. Where A represents action. The patient is severely ill, has sufficiently severe clinical features that they require major immunosuppressive therapy. B for beware, in the sense that we already knew the patient was active. C for contentment. There is low level activity, not requiring much in the way of therapy. D for discount, in the sense that the disease was once active but is no longer active. And E for no evidence of disease in the system now or previously. Here’s an example of the way that this works. Take, for example, the cardiovascular assessment. In a patient who presents with cardiac failure or symptomatic effusion and two of these other features listed here, from pleuropericardial pain due to friction rub, to deteriorating lung function. That patient will be categorized for their cardiovascular assessment as an A. In contrast, if only two of these criteria were present, they would be categorized as a B. If only one criteria or mild chest pain was present, they would get a C. A D if there was previous involvement but none current, and E for no previous involvement.
Now all of these patients were treated initially with large doses of corticosteroids and a significant number of them failed to respond. What should you do then? There is some conflicting data in the literature but we have found that splenectomy done relatively early to be a very helpful way of proceeding. So, of 17 patients that we identified during this time period, 12 had lupus, four had antiphospholipid syndrome, and one had three features of lupus and what we referred to as lupus-like. Nine of these patients were eventually given a splenectomy. Six of them responded completely, two of them gave a partial response, which unfortunately was not sustained, and one patient died of an unrelated carcinoma. The patient with the lupus-like disease also did extremely well. So for us, we tend to treat patients with thrombocytopenia, especially the acutely presenting ones, with corticosteroids. If that doesn’t work within a few months we would proceed to splenectomy. We may use some IV Ig on the way.
That's some stuff about Lupus Symptoms in Women
Anxiety Treatment Guide Discontinue caffeinated beverages and avoid excess alcohol. Daily exercise and adequate sleep (with the use of medication if necessary) should be advised.
Breast Cancer Treatment and Therapy Guidelines What about the follow-up after our primary and adjuvant treatment for breast cancer? We know from many good signs that most of the recurrences are found by patients, second most by physicians and almost never by routine tests. Therefore, the official recommendations for follow-up of asymptomatic individuals after primary therapy is that they have history and physicals about every four to six months and that they have annual mammographies. There are no films, scans, tumor markers that are indicated in the follow-up of asymptomatic individuals. So, we usually suggest a history and physical every three to six months and an annual mammography. This is something that is continually under review. It might change, but today, all of the studies that have been done have never been able to show survival benefit for intensive screening with radiographic and blood testing as opposed to just clinical follow-up of these patients.
Metastatic breast cancer. If breast cancer is found to have spread at the time of diagnosis or recurs later after local therapy, we have a situation which cannot be realistically considered to be a curable disease at this point. I think that is important. It is equally important however to recognize that the survival ratio with metastatic breast cancer is very, very variable. If you have metastatic lung cancer or inoperable pancreas cancer, most of these patients are dead in year. Certainly within 18 months. There is almost no survival at two years with a disease like that. Breast cancer is all over the board. The median survival from onset of metastases is probably on the order of two to three years but all of us have patients who have lived 10 years or more in very good physical condition after the development of metastatic disease. So, again looking at the clinical parameters of what the disease-free interval is, what sites are involved, whether the hormone receptors are positive, can help you project somewhat what is going to happen but is a situation with an extremely variable prognosis.
Diverticulitis Diet Foods to Avoid A low residue diet is one that consists of a daily intake of no more than 10 grams of fiber. While on this diet for an extended period of time it is recommended that a multi-vitamin or mineral supplement be taken daily. This ensures that minerals and vitamins lost while on the low residue diet are made by taking supplements.
Until recently, many doctors suggested avoiding foods with small seeds because it was believed that particles could lodge in the diverticula and cause inflammation. However, this is now a controversial point and no evidence supports this recommendation. So the seeds in tomatoes, zucchini, cucumbers, strawberries and raspberries, as well as poppy seeds, which are part of your diverticulitis diet, are generally considered harmless.
Acute Leukemia Prognosis, Symptoms and Treatment Acute Leukemia is neoplastic disorders characterized by proliferation of immature hematopoietic
precursor cells in the bone marrow, and later in the peripheral blood and
other organs and tissues. If untreated, death usually occurs within six months
of diagnosis. Increase risk is associated with the following:
Erythema Multiforme and Stevens Johnson Syndrome Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute hypersensitivity reaction characterized by distinctive skin lesions and mucous membrane involvement that has a spectrum of severity. It occurs in two forms: the more common "minor" type and the more severe "major" type, also called Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Sometimes EM includes toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) or Lyell disease. EM minor first was described completely by von Hebra in 1866; Stevens and Johnson described the major variant in 1922. EM occurs more often in males, and 20% to 50% of cases occur in the pediatric age group, although rarely in those younger than age 3 years. A winter predominance is suggested.
The pathologic process responsible for EM is unknown. A review of the literature generates an extensive list of causative or inciting agents. Most frequently mentioned are sulfonamide antibiotics and anticonvulsants, both used commonly in pediatric practice. Malignancies, radiotherapy, autoimmune diseases, and infectious agents such as mycoplasma also have been implicated as possible causes. In 1992, Weston et al described a high incidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in EM lesions among both adults and children with or without a preceding history of HSV infection.
Characteristics of Anxiety Anxiety is an emotion and a subjective individual experience. It is an energy and therefore cannot be observed directly. A nurse infers that appetent is anxious based on certain behavior. The nurse needs to validate this with the patient. Also anxiety is an emotion without a specific object. It is provided by the unknown and precedes all new experiences such as entering school, starting a new job, or giving birth to a child.
The characteristic of anxiety differentiates it from fear. Fear is are individual ideation with specific source or object that the person can identify and describe. Fear involves the intellectual appraisal of a threatening stimulus, anxiety involves the emotional response to that appraisal. A person generally fears a set of circumstances that may occur at same point in the future. A fear is caused by physical or psychological exposure to a threatening situation. Fear produces anxiety. The two emotions are differentiated in speech, we speak of having a fear but of being anxious.
Stomach Cancer Symptoms and Signs The stomach is a hollow organ in the upper abdomen, under the ribs.
It's part of the digestive system. Food moves from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach. In the stomach, the food becomes liquid. Muscles in the stomach wall push the liquid into the small intestine.
Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that make up tissues. Tissues make up the organs of the body.
Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place.
Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old or damaged cells do not die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth, polyp, or tumor.
Cyclosporin As we move on, drugs like CellCept and Prograf are replacing cyclosporin, but cyclosporin can take a normal person and give him tophaceous gout in about 24 months. Because it is a causer of renal insufficiency it also inhibits the secretion of uric acid by the kidney and resorption from uric acids, so it is a three-fold toxin in terms of developing gout in patients. It can develop raging tophaceous gout, and one of the problems was is that most patients with renal and heart transplant were on drugs such as Imuran and Cyclosporin, and Allopurinol interact with one another. You have a real difficult time of using Allopurinol on a patient and Azathioprine because of drug interactions and toxicities. These individuals are difficult to treat. Rapid in onset and have severe tophaceous gout.
Scurvy Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Scurvy is a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. It is characterized by anemia (deficiency of red blood cells), spongy gums, a tendency to bleed and abnormal bone and tooth formation. The disease may be either acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term).
Vitamin C is essential for the formation and maintenance of connective tissue, bone tissue, and teeth. It is also essential for the healing of wounds and burns.
Carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms and treatment Carpal tunnel syndrome is characterized by weakness, pain, tingling, numbness, or burning in the palm, the thumb, the index finger, the middle finger, and the ring finger, caused by entrapment of the median nerve in the wrist. (This condition, like any syndrome, is not a disease in itself but rather a collection of symptoms.) The condition most often affects women in their 30s, 40s, and 50s. it may develop or become worse because of work that requires repeated grasping, twisting, or turning of the hand and wrist, especially against resistance or while using vibrating tools.
The carpal tunnel is formed by the bones of the wrist (carpal means wrist) and the tough band of connective tissue known as the transverse carpal ligament. Among the structures inside the tunnel are the median nerve and the tendons that flex the fingers and thumb. Any swelling or thickening of tissue within the tunnel can cause the median nerve to be compressed between the transverse carpal ligament and the tendons and other contents of the tunnel. The squeezed nerve, which controls the thumb, index finger, and third finger, cannot work as it should, and the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome result.
Symptoms of endometriosis Are you looking for symptoms of endometriosis? here is some good article about symptoms of endometriosis.
Ten percent of women will develop endometriosis, characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue at sites outside the uterine cavity. The ectopic endometrial cells cause cyclical dysmenorrhea. The most common sites are the ovaries, posterior cul-de-sac, uterosacral ligaments, posterior broad ligament, and anterior cul-de-sac. The uterine serosa, rectovaginal septum, cervix, vagina rectosigmoid, and bladder are less frequent locations.
Cataract Causes, Symptoms and Treatment A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye that results in obscured vision. People with this defect see their environment as if they were looking through a waterfall.
Normally, the lens is clear. Its function is to focus light onto the retina (the layer of light-sensitive cells lining the back of the eye), so that objects at various distances can be seen clearly. If the lens becomes hazy, however, incoming light is scattered, and vision blurs.