Are you looking for Lupus Symptoms in Women? Lupus is a clinical syndrome, the cause of which remains uncertain. It is a member of the family of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Lupus is more common in women, and certainly more common amongst the black and Chinese population. It’s clinical diversity is at least apparently matched by its serological diversity. The prevalence of lupus among Afro-Caribbeans is approximately five times that of a Caucasian population, and about 2 ˝ times that of an Asian population.
Lupus Symptoms in Women
Lupus is far from confined to the skin. Indeed, we now recognize lupus in all its many systemic forms, much of the work being done in this century in various parts of the United States. At least 10% of the patients in my cohort who have been misdiagnoses as suffering from lymphomas or other malignant diseases. Virtually all lupus patients of course have musculoskeletal involvement, substantial number have dermatologic involvement, and a large number of patients also have gastrointestinal disease. Perhaps nowhere is the clinical diversity shown that in the cerebral system, where anything from migraine to madness may be a feature of lupus. About 30% of patients with lupus presenting to a rheumatologist will turn out to have significant renal disease. Perhaps 40% will have cardiopulmonary disease and virtually all patients with lupus have some hematological manifestation or another.
For the final clinical conundrum, I’d like to draw your attention to thrombocytopenia. I’d like to persuade you, at least to my mind, that there are at least three sorts of thrombocytopenia in patients with lupus. There are a group of patients who present with what is generally regarded as idiopathic disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, until other features of lupus turn up some years later. The platelet count can certainly get very low with these patients and clinical symptoms referable to thrombocytopenia are very common. In addition I recognize a group of patients with what I call chronic persistent thrombocytopenia within the context of lupus. The platelet count here often runs between 50 and 125, but the clinical symptoms referable to this platelet count are much rarer. There are a similar number of patients who have a dramatic fall in their platelet counts. This can occur over a matter of weeks or months and there are again frequent clinical features relevant to the platelet counts. How best to treat these patients? This is a review of a number of patients with lupus or the antiphospholipid syndrome, reviewed by _ and myself some years ago. In our cohort 16.5% of patients had thrombocytopenia as judged by a platelet count of less than 100; 7.5% of these patients had thrombocytopenia linked to antiphospholipid antibodies and 6% have very severe thrombocytopenia, counts less than 15 with symptoms.
If each of the eight organ systems, based largely on clinical questions - and I stress that, clinical questions - we define disease activity on this A-E basis. Where A represents action. The patient is severely ill, has sufficiently severe clinical features that they require major immunosuppressive therapy. B for beware, in the sense that we already knew the patient was active. C for contentment. There is low level activity, not requiring much in the way of therapy. D for discount, in the sense that the disease was once active but is no longer active. And E for no evidence of disease in the system now or previously. Here’s an example of the way that this works. Take, for example, the cardiovascular assessment. In a patient who presents with cardiac failure or symptomatic effusion and two of these other features listed here, from pleuropericardial pain due to friction rub, to deteriorating lung function. That patient will be categorized for their cardiovascular assessment as an A. In contrast, if only two of these criteria were present, they would be categorized as a B. If only one criteria or mild chest pain was present, they would get a C. A D if there was previous involvement but none current, and E for no previous involvement.
Now all of these patients were treated initially with large doses of corticosteroids and a significant number of them failed to respond. What should you do then? There is some conflicting data in the literature but we have found that splenectomy done relatively early to be a very helpful way of proceeding. So, of 17 patients that we identified during this time period, 12 had lupus, four had antiphospholipid syndrome, and one had three features of lupus and what we referred to as lupus-like. Nine of these patients were eventually given a splenectomy. Six of them responded completely, two of them gave a partial response, which unfortunately was not sustained, and one patient died of an unrelated carcinoma. The patient with the lupus-like disease also did extremely well. So for us, we tend to treat patients with thrombocytopenia, especially the acutely presenting ones, with corticosteroids. If that doesn’t work within a few months we would proceed to splenectomy. We may use some IV Ig on the way.
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Heartbeat irregularities Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Heartbeat irregularities (also called cardiac arrhythmias) are deviations from the normal, steady beating of the heart.
Minor irregularities in the heartbeat are common, but more serious arrhythmias can lead to fainting, angina pectoris, or heart attack. The most devastating heartbeat irregularity is called ventricular fibrillation, which occurs when the normally steady pumping action of the heart is reduced action of the heart is reduced to a useless quivering.
Family Health Nursing “Family health nursing is the practice of nursing directed towards maximizing the health and well-being of all individuals within a family system. It incorporates two views of family; family as a unit of care and family as a system existing within larger system. Levels of intervention are individuals the personal, the family system, and the environmental level. The goals of the family health nursing include optimal functioning for the individual and for the family as a unit.”
The family as a unit of care means that the entire family is the recipient of nursing intervention. This view point recognizes the mandate in the standards of community health nursing’s practice that identifies clients as individuals, families and communities. In contrast, the family as context recognizes the impact the family has on an individual. This viewpoint underscores the need to understand the family environment in which the individual exists.
Meningitis and Sepsis in Children
Sepsis in the newborn. By and large the most common organism is group B strep and most of the disease reflects maternal colonization with group B Streptococci. The risk of a child having sepsis in the newborn period increases with reports of a number of other factors, including maternal fever, prolonged rupture of membranes, premature rupture of membranes, being a low birth weight infant where they may not have received antibody from the mother which would be protective against these encapsulated bacteria. Epidemiological data continue to link lower socioeconomic status with a higher risk of sepsis, and a point not to forget; when you see one pair of twins who is septic, the other should be promptly evaluated because there tends to be a high concordance rate of group B strep disease among twins. The other point, early onset disease. Sepsis appearing in the first week of life tends to be sepsis or pneumonia. >From seven days of age to 28 days of age sepsis is more frequently associated with bacterial meningitis.
Chicken pox symptoms adults Are you looking for chicken pox symptoms adults? Chickenpox or chicken pox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). It usually starts with vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head rather than at the periphery and becomes itchy, raw pockmarks, which mostly heal without scarring.
Chickenpox is an airborne disease spread easily through coughing or sneezing of ill individuals or through direct contact with secretions from the rash. A person with chickenpox is infectious one to two days before the rash appears. The contagious period continues for 4 to 5 days after the appearance of the rash, or until all lesions have crusted over. Immunocompromised patients are probably contagious during the entire period new lesions keep appearing. Crusted lesions are not contagious.
Bell Palsy Treatment Guidelines Bell's palsy is an idiopathic facial paresis that has been attributed to an inflammatory reaction involving the facial nerve. A relationship of Bell's palsy to reactivation of herpes simplex virus has recently been suggested, but there is little evidence to support this.
Glossitis Symptoms and Treatment Glossitis is an acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) inflammation of the tongue. It may exist either as a primary disease or as a symptom of another disease or disorder.
The causes of glossitis can be either local or systemic (affecting the entire body). Local causes include immediate irritants, such as jagged or broken teeth, badly fitting dentures, poor oral hygiene habits, biting of the tongue (such as during convulsions), and external irritants, such as alcohol, tobacco, hot or spicy food, and even mouthwashes, toothpastes, and breath fresheners. Local infections, burns, and injuries may also produce symptoms of glossitis. Systemic causes may include certain vitamin deficiencies (especially vitamin B deficiencies, such as pellagra), anemia, syphilis, generalized skin diseases.
Sinusitis Symptoms and Treatment Sinusitis is an infection (usually bacterial) of one or more of the sinuses. It occurs more commonly in adults than in children. The sinuses are air-filled cavities located within the facial bone structure and connected to the nose. There are four major groups; frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, and maxillary.
The sinuses are lined with mucous membrane and are normally kept clear when mucus drains through them into the nasal passages. If they are obstructed, normal drainage cannot occur, and infection of the sinuses can result.
Chicken Pox Causes, Symptoms, Complications, Treatment and Prevention Chicken pox is an extremely contagious disease that is characterized by a blistery rash. It occurs most frequently in children between the ages of five and eight; less than 20 percent of the cases in the United States affect people over 15 years old. Chicken pox is transmitted so easily that most everyone gets the disease at some time.
Chicken Pox Causes
Chicken pox is caused by infection with the varicella zoster virus. Chicken pox is contracted by touching an infected person’s blisters or anything that has been contaminated by contact with them. The virus also thought by some researchers to be air borne, since it may be caught from an infected person before the rash develops. Another way to get chicken pox is by exposure to shingles, a localized rash caused by the same virus.
The incubation period (the time between exposure to the illness and the appearance of symptoms) of chicken pox is 10 to 21 days. It is contagious for about six to eight days after day rash appears or until all of the blisters have dried out.
IVF Treatment Cost and Process Are you looking for about ivf treatment cost and process? In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process by which egg cells are fertilised by sperm outside the body: in vitro. IVF is a major treatment in infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The process involves hormonally controlling the ovulatory process, removing ova (eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium. The fertilised egg (zygote) is then transferred to the patient's uterus with the intent to establish a successful pregnancy. The first successful birth of a "test tube baby", Louise Brown, occurred in 1978. Robert G. Edwards, the doctor who developed the treatment, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2010. Before that, there was a transient biochemical pregnancy reported by Australian Foxton School researchers in 1953 and an ectopic pregnancy reported by Steptoe and Edwards in 1976. At the same time, Subash Mukhopadyay, a relatively unknown physician from Kolkata, India was performing experiments on his own with primitive instruments and a house hold refrigerator and this resulted in a test tube baby, later named as "Durga" (alias Kanupriya Agarwal) who was born on October 3, 1978
Aneurysm Symptoms and Treatment An aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel, usually an artery, due to a weakness in the vessel wall, particularly in the elastic, muscular middle layer of the artery wall. An artery has three layers: the intima, which is the smooth inner layer; the media, or middle layer; and the adventitia, which is the tough outer layer. A true aneurysm involves all three layers, whereas a false aneurysm is a disruption or clot in one or two of the layers, causing a bulge in the vessel. A dissecting aneurysm occurs when blood separates the layers, thereby creating an extra channel, sometimes extending the full length of the artery, through which blood flow is diverted from the organs or tissues served by the blood vessel. This dangerous condition can develop in a matter of hours a day.
The main danger of most untreated aneurysm is that they may rupture, causing death due to loss of blood. Even if death does not occur, blood loss may so decrease blood flow to the heart that it cannot work properly.
What is Marijuana and the Effects on Brain and Body Approximately 25 years ago, marijuana became a cultural phenomenon, the symbol of one generation's disregard for another. The marijuana found on the streets at that time, however, lacked the potency of current crops. Crossbreeding of more potent variates, improved cultivation, and the part of the plant being used all contribute to increased levels of the delta90-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive drug found in marijuana. Some marijuana currently grown in the United States rivals the previously stringer varieties of Mexico, Jamaica, and other areas. The THC percentage of Cannabis saliva (the Indian hemp plant which marijuana is derived) in plants grown in the United Sates can range from 2% to as high as 7%. The higher the percentage of THC , the more potent the drug. Marijuana is composed of the dried leaves and flowering tops of the cannabis plant. Hashish, which has stronger effects, is processed from called hash oil. Marijuana is seed motor extensively than hashish in the United States.
Early Onset Dementia Symptoms Are you looking for early onset dementia symptoms? Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) or Early onset Familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD) is an uncommon form of Alzheimer's disease that usually strikes earlier in life, defined as before the age of 65 (usually between 50 and 65 years of age, but can be as early as 15) and is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, identified by genetics and other characteristics such as the age of onset. It accounts for approximately half the cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Familial AD requires the patient to have at least one first degree relative with a history of AD. Non-familial cases of AD are referred to as "sporadic" AD, where genetic risk factors are minor or unclear.
Thyroid Cancer Symptoms and Treatment hyroid carcinoma is common in all age groups, and it is especially in patients who have received any radiation therapy to the face, neck, or upper chest. It is rarely associated with functional abnormalities. Papillary carcinoma is the most common and least aggressive thyroid malignancy. Pure papillary or mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma represents about 70% of all thyroid cancers. Follicular carcinoma represents about 15% of thyroid malignancies but is more likely to have distant metastases. Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas are classified as differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Medullary thyroid carcinoma represents less than 5% of thyroid cancers and tends to metastasize locally. Of all cases of medullary thyroid cancer, about one-third are sporadic, one-third are familial occurrences, and another third are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type II. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma represents only about 1% of thyroid malignancies. Other malignancies involving the thyroid include lymphomas and metastases (especially melanoma, breast, renal, and bronchogenic carcinomas).