Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids
2011-03-23 > Various
What is Immune System
An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own healthy cells and tissues in order to function properly.
Detection is complicated as pathogens can evolve rapidly, and adapt to avoid the immune system and allow the pathogens to successfully infect their hosts.
Immune System Function
The immune system is composed of many interdependent cell types that collectively protect the body from bacterial, parasitic, fungal, viral infections and from the growth of tumor cells. Many of these cell types have specialized functions. The cells of the immune system can engulf bacteria, kill parasites or tumor cells, or kill viral-infected cells. Often, these cells depend on the T helper subset for activation signals in the form of secretions formally known as cytokines, lymphokines, or more specifically interleukins.
The Organs of the Immune System
All the cells of the immune system are initially derived from the bone marrow.
In the thymus gland lymphoid cells undergo a process of maturation and education prior to release into the circulation. This process allows T cells to develop the important attribute known as self tolerance.
The spleen is an immunologic filter of the blood. It is made up of B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and red blood cells.
Lymph nodes are small bean shaped structures lying along the course of lymphatics. They are aggregated in particular sites such as the neck, axillae, groins and para-aortic region.
Killer T cell are a sub-group of T cells that kill cells that are infected with viruses (and other pathogens), or are otherwise damaged or dysfunctional. As with B cells, each type of T cell recognises a different antigen. Killer T cells are activated when their T cell receptor (TCR) binds to this specific antigen in a complex with the MHC Class I receptor of another cell. Recognition of this MHC:antigen complex is aided by a co-receptor on the T cell, called CD8. The T cell then travels throughout the body in search of cells where the MHC I receptors bear this antigen. When an activated T cell contacts such cells, it releases cytotoxins, such as perforin, which form pores in the target cell's plasma membrane, allowing ions, water and toxins to enter. The entry of another toxin called granulysin (a protease) induces the target cell to undergo apoptosis. T cell killing of host cells is particularly important in preventing the replication of viruses. T cell activation is tightly controlled and generally requires a very strong MHC/antigen activation signal, or additional activation signals provided by "helper" T cells.
Flexeril dosage and usage Flexeril (cyclobenzaprine) is a muscle relaxant. It works by blocking nerve impulses (or pain sensations) that are sent to your brain. Flexeril is used together with rest and physical therapy to treat skeletal muscle conditions such as pain or injury. Flexeril may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Pigment Disorders and Birthmarks The mechanism that controls skin coloration is described above under “Skin Color.” Abnormalities in the creation and distribution of melanin result in the following disorders some of which are negligible.
These are small spots of brown pigment that frequently occur when fair-skinned people are exposed to the sun or to ultraviolet light. For those whose skin gets red rather than tan during such exposure, freckles are a protective device. In most cases, they recede in cold weather. A heavy freckle formation that is permanent can be covered somewhat by cosmetic preparations. No attempt should be made to remove freckles with commercial creams or solutions unless supervised by a physician
Angina Useful Remedies
The amino acid L-carnitine taken daily (1-3g) helps to improve the functioning of the heart and reduces symptoms associated with angina.
Co-enzyme Q10 – 150mg a day – has helped angina patients manage more exercise with less symptoms.
Natural-source vitamin E (400-500 IU a day) taken for at least one or two years thins blood naturally. If you are taking blood-thinning drugs, have your blood checked regularly by a doctor.
Fish oil supply EPA and DHA, which are essential fats that thin the blood naturally. Take 3mg daily to help reduce chest pain.
The herb remedy Hawthorne, 1-2ml tincture or 1-2g in tablets daily, helps protect blood vessels and improved heart function.
Take 2g of vitamin C daily with 1g of the amino acid lysine, which work together to help reverse atherosclerosis.
Magnesium helps regulate the heartbeat. Begin on 200mg daily, thereafter increasing to 400mg.
Include a good quality multivitamin and mineral in this regimen.
Begin using grapefruit pectin fibre over your breakfast cereal or in low-fat yoghurts. In numerous clinical trials, regular intake has been shown to lower LDL levels (the ‘bad’ cholesterol) and the gently remove some of the sticky plague from artery walls. Available from all good health
Menstrual Disorders (Amenorrhea) Among the health concerns of women that specifically belong to gynecology are menstrual disorders. Normally, the first menstrual period (menarche) occurs about age 12 or 13, or sometimes earlier or later. Periods are generally irregular for the first year or two, and then they tend to recur at intervals of 24 to 32 days. Each period begins about two weeks after ovulation, or the release of an egg cell (ovum) from the ovary—unless, of course, the ovum happens to be fertilized in the interval and pregnancy interrupts the whole process.
The menstrual flow, which lasts from three to seven days, is composed mainly of serum, mucus, and dead cells shed from the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. The loss of blood is minimal, usually from two to four ounces. The volume of flow, as well as the time schedule, tends to be fairly regular for most women. When one’s menstrual pattern varies noticeably from the expected pattern, and in the absence of pregnancy, it may be assign of a physical or emotional disorder.
Plantar fasciitis exercises and treatment Are you looking for Plantar fasciitis exercises and treatment? Plantar fasciitis is a painful inflammatory process of the plantar fascia. Longstanding cases of plantar fasciitis often demonstrate more degenerative changes than inflammatory changes, in which case they are termed plantar fasciosis. The suffix "osis" implies a pathology of chronic degeneration without inflammation. Since tendons and ligaments do not contain blood vessels, they do not actually become inflamed. Instead, injury to the tendon is usually the result of an accumulation over time of microscopic tears at the cellular level.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Symptoms and Treatments Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common female endocrine disorders. PCOS is a complex, heterogeneous disorder of uncertain etiology, but there is strong evidence that it can to a large degree be classified as a genetic disease.
PCOS produces symptoms in approximately 5% to 10% of women of reproductive age (12–45 years old). It is thought to be one of the leading causes of female subfertility and the most frequent endocrine problem in women of reproductive age.
Blood Pressure Definition Classification and Measurement Devices Blood pressure definition
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. During each heartbeat, BP varies between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure. The mean BP, due to pumping by the heart and resistance to flow in blood vessels, decreases as the circulating blood moves away from the heart through arteries.
Anxiety As A Response To Stress Stress is the wear and tear that life causes on the body. It occurs when a person has difficulty dealing with life situations, problems and goals. Each person handles stress differently; one person can thrive in a situation that creates great distress for another. For example, may people view public speaking as scary, but for teachers and actors it is an everyday, enjoyable experience. Marriage, children, airplanes, snakes, a new job, a new school, and leaving home are examples of stress-causing events.
Hans Selye (1956, 1974), an endocrinologist, identified the physiologic aspects of stress, which he labeled the General Adaptation Syndrome. He used laboratory animals to assess biologic system changes the stages of the body’s physical responses to pain, heat, toxins, and restraint; and later the mind’s emotional responses to real or perceived stressors. He determined three stages of reaction to stress:
How to Lose Weight Fast Without Buying Anything Are you looking for How to Lose Weight Fast Without Buying Anything? With all of the advertisements you see on TV, in magazines and online, you'd think that you need to spend a fortune if you want to lose weight. Fortunately, this is not the case. You can lose weight fast without buying anything--you simply have to pay strict attention to your diet and exercise program. Look for free weight loss resources to replace the ones that you may otherwise have to pay for.
Breast Augmentation Surgery Cost Are you looking for Breast Augmentation Surgery Cost?
What is breast augmentation surgery? Also known as augmentation mammaplasty, breast augmentation surgery involves using implants to fulfill your desire for fuller breasts or to restore breast volume lost after weight reduction or pregnancy.
What is Vitamin D for Health Are you looking for what is vitamin d for health?
Vitamin D is very important for the health and it is true fact that vitamin is not found in our foods as compare to its need in the body. Other major and most important source of vitamin d is sun light. But in this era world is fast enough that none of us has enough time to get sub bath and get vitamin via their skin.
Lasik Eye Surgery Cost and Prices Are you looking how much Lasik Eye Surgery Cost?
There have always been concerns about LASIK because of its tendency to induce higher-order aberrations. The advancement of the LASIK technology has helped reduce the risk of clinically significant visual impairment after surgery. There is a correlation between pupil size and aberrations. Effectively, the larger the pupil size, the greater the risk of aberrations. This correlation is the result of the irregularity between the untouched part of the cornea and the reshaped part. Daytime post-lasik vision is optimal, since the pupil is smaller than the LASIK flap. But at night, the pupil may expand such that light passes through the edge of the LASIK flap into the pupil which gives rise to many aberrations, including the appearance of halos surrounding sources of light. There are other currently unknown factors in addition to pupil size that also may lead to higher order aberrations