Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids
2011-03-23 > Various
What is Immune System
An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own healthy cells and tissues in order to function properly.
Detection is complicated as pathogens can evolve rapidly, and adapt to avoid the immune system and allow the pathogens to successfully infect their hosts.
Immune System Function
The immune system is composed of many interdependent cell types that collectively protect the body from bacterial, parasitic, fungal, viral infections and from the growth of tumor cells. Many of these cell types have specialized functions. The cells of the immune system can engulf bacteria, kill parasites or tumor cells, or kill viral-infected cells. Often, these cells depend on the T helper subset for activation signals in the form of secretions formally known as cytokines, lymphokines, or more specifically interleukins.
The Organs of the Immune System
All the cells of the immune system are initially derived from the bone marrow.
In the thymus gland lymphoid cells undergo a process of maturation and education prior to release into the circulation. This process allows T cells to develop the important attribute known as self tolerance.
The spleen is an immunologic filter of the blood. It is made up of B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and red blood cells.
Lymph nodes are small bean shaped structures lying along the course of lymphatics. They are aggregated in particular sites such as the neck, axillae, groins and para-aortic region.
Killer T cell are a sub-group of T cells that kill cells that are infected with viruses (and other pathogens), or are otherwise damaged or dysfunctional. As with B cells, each type of T cell recognises a different antigen. Killer T cells are activated when their T cell receptor (TCR) binds to this specific antigen in a complex with the MHC Class I receptor of another cell. Recognition of this MHC:antigen complex is aided by a co-receptor on the T cell, called CD8. The T cell then travels throughout the body in search of cells where the MHC I receptors bear this antigen. When an activated T cell contacts such cells, it releases cytotoxins, such as perforin, which form pores in the target cell's plasma membrane, allowing ions, water and toxins to enter. The entry of another toxin called granulysin (a protease) induces the target cell to undergo apoptosis. T cell killing of host cells is particularly important in preventing the replication of viruses. T cell activation is tightly controlled and generally requires a very strong MHC/antigen activation signal, or additional activation signals provided by "helper" T cells.
Asthma Remedies at Home
Take a good quality multivitamin daily, plus a multimineral containing 200
- 400 mg of magnesium, and 200 mcg of selenium, because low levels leave you
more at risk from an attack.
Vitamin C in an ascorbate form; 1g three times a day taken with meals
helps opne the airways.
Take vitamin B6 (150 mg), B12 (1,000 - 2,000 mcg a day), as well as a B
complex. Asthma medication depletes B vitamins, particularly in people who are
sensitive to sulphates.
The enzyme bromelain taken 1,000 - 4,000 mcu a day helps to reduce mucous
production and ease breathing.
Take 60 mg a day of natural source beta carotene if you suffer from
exercise induced asthma.
The herb ginkgo biloba 120 - 240 mg standardised extract, or 3 - 4 ml of
tincture, taken daily has been shown to improve circulation and decrease
Oralmat is an extract or rye grass in a liquid formula that has
been shown to support healthy respiratory function by strengthening defences
against toxins in the lungs. An Australian study in mild to moderate
asthamatics showed considerable lessening of symptoms, for some after only a
few days of use. Three drops should be placed under the tongue three times
daily (hold for 30 seconds or longer). Children should use one drop instead.
Bronchial dilating herbs such as euphorbia and grindelia help open the
airways. Take 15 drops of each herb three times daily in juice.
Chlamydia Symptoms and Treatment for Men Chlamydia is a bacterial infection disease transmitted when people have sexual relations. It is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States, with over 2.8 million affected individuals each year. Among adults, about 5% of the population is estimated to be infected. Among sexually active adolescent females, about 10% are infected.
Failure patterns of combined modality treatment in lung cancer By C.J. Hoekstra, H. Rijna, E.F. Smit, J.C. van Mourik, P.E. Postmus, A.A. Lammertsma, O.S. Hoekstra 17
Background: Patients with locally advanced non-small cell
lung cancer (NSCLC) may be treated with induction
chemotherapy (IC) followed by surgery with curative
Amyloidosis Prognosis and Treatment Amyloidosis results from the deposition of insoluble, fibrous amyloid proteins, nearly always in the extracellular spaces of organs and tissues. All amyloid proteins share a unique fibrillar ultrastructure. Amyloid fibrils can be deposited locally or may involve virtually every organ system of the body. Amyloid fibril deposition may have no apparent clinical consequences or may lead to severe pathophysiologic changes.
There are multiple clinically and biochemically distinct forms of amyloid that share a unique morphology and secondary structure; some are systemic and others are localized or organ-limited. Although the fibril precursors differ in their amino acid sequences, the polypeptide backbones of these protein precursors assume an identical secondary structure, the beta-pleated sheet conformation, and similar fibrillar morphologies that render them resistant to proteolysis. All amyloid deposits contain an identical nonfibrillar component, the pentraxin or serum amyloid P (SAP). The amyloidoses are classified according to the biochemical nature of the fibril-forming protein. Systemic amyloidoses include biochemically distinct forms that are neoplastic, inflammatory, genetic, or iatrogenic in origin, while localized or organ-limited amyloidoses are associated with aging and diabetes and occur in isolated organs, often endocrine, without evidence of systemic involvement.
ADHD Symptoms in Children Are you looking for ADHD Symptoms in Children? Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or AD/HD or ADD) is a developmental disorder. It is primarily characterized by "the co-existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity, with each behavior occurring infrequently alone" and symptoms starting before seven years of age. ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children, affecting about 3 to 5 percent of children globally and diagnosed in about 2 to 16 percent of school aged children.
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Diet and exercise plan articles Here is some articles about Diet and exercise plan. How can you lose weight? With diet and exercise. The key to successful weight loss is developing healthy diet and exercise habits. You may not like those words — diet and exercise. Don't get hung up on the words. Diet just means eating healthy, lower calorie meals. Exercise means being more active.
Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Are you looking for chemotherapy for breast cancer? here is some article about chemotherapy for breast cancer.
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Bill Clinton Diet Vegan Plan Are you looking for about bill clinton diet vegan plan? When Bill Clinton announced last year that he was dropping meat and dairy in favor of a plant-based diet, it immediately threw the spotlight on veganism and its associated health benefits.
"I'm trying to be one of those experimenters," said Clinton. "Since 1986, several hundred people who have tried essentially a plant-based diet, not ingesting any cholesterol from any source, has seen their bodies start to heal themselves - break up the arterial blockage, break up the calcium deposits around the heart. 82 percent of the people who have done this have had this result, so I want to see if I can be one of them."
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