Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids
2011-03-23 > Various
What is Immune System
An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own healthy cells and tissues in order to function properly.
Detection is complicated as pathogens can evolve rapidly, and adapt to avoid the immune system and allow the pathogens to successfully infect their hosts.
Immune System Function
The immune system is composed of many interdependent cell types that collectively protect the body from bacterial, parasitic, fungal, viral infections and from the growth of tumor cells. Many of these cell types have specialized functions. The cells of the immune system can engulf bacteria, kill parasites or tumor cells, or kill viral-infected cells. Often, these cells depend on the T helper subset for activation signals in the form of secretions formally known as cytokines, lymphokines, or more specifically interleukins.
The Organs of the Immune System
All the cells of the immune system are initially derived from the bone marrow.
In the thymus gland lymphoid cells undergo a process of maturation and education prior to release into the circulation. This process allows T cells to develop the important attribute known as self tolerance.
The spleen is an immunologic filter of the blood. It is made up of B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and red blood cells.
Lymph nodes are small bean shaped structures lying along the course of lymphatics. They are aggregated in particular sites such as the neck, axillae, groins and para-aortic region.
Killer T cell are a sub-group of T cells that kill cells that are infected with viruses (and other pathogens), or are otherwise damaged or dysfunctional. As with B cells, each type of T cell recognises a different antigen. Killer T cells are activated when their T cell receptor (TCR) binds to this specific antigen in a complex with the MHC Class I receptor of another cell. Recognition of this MHC:antigen complex is aided by a co-receptor on the T cell, called CD8. The T cell then travels throughout the body in search of cells where the MHC I receptors bear this antigen. When an activated T cell contacts such cells, it releases cytotoxins, such as perforin, which form pores in the target cell's plasma membrane, allowing ions, water and toxins to enter. The entry of another toxin called granulysin (a protease) induces the target cell to undergo apoptosis. T cell killing of host cells is particularly important in preventing the replication of viruses. T cell activation is tightly controlled and generally requires a very strong MHC/antigen activation signal, or additional activation signals provided by "helper" T cells.
Symptoms of Pregnancy On the chart below are list of the most common symptoms of pregnancy and what they mean. You can also click the sign to get more information on each symptoms of pregnancy. The three categories of pregnancy symptoms are: possible, probable and positive.
Candida Symptoms and Treatment Opportunistic infections caused by Candida species have increased substantially over the past 10 to 15 years. National data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that Candida species caused 7.7% of bloodstream infections nationwide from 1985 through 1988.
Seriously ill, immunocompetent patients and severely immunocompromised patients are at particular risk for nosocomial candidal infections. Included in these groups are neonates, patients with various forms of cancer who are leukopenic, and patients who have had major surgery (especially gastrointestinal and pancreatic), severe burns, or bone marrow transplants.
Heart Attack Treatment Plans The treatment of a heart attack varies somewhat from case to case. The first rule, however, is to get the person to a hospital as soon as possible. Almost one-third of people who have a heart attack die before reaching the hospital. Of those who do get to a hospital, the vast majority will recover.
Complete cardiac arrest (meaning that the heart stops beating) can occur at any time during a heart attack. Even if cardiac arrest occurs, the patient has a good chance of survival if cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is started within four minutes of the arrest. CPR is a simple technique using mouth-to-mouth ventilation and chest compressions to pump oxygenated blood to the brain even though the victim's heart is not beating. Although CPR is a simple technique to learn, it cannot be learned from a book. CPR courses are taught by local chapters of the American Heart Association and American Red Cross. If everyone were trained in CPR, an estimated 100,000 lives would be saved each year in the United States alone.
Facing Cancer While heart diseases mortality rates have declined steadily over the past 50 years, cancer mortality rates have increased consistently in the same period. Based on current rates, about 83 million-or one in three of us now living-will eventually develop cancer. Many factors have contributed to the rise in cancer mortality, but the increase in the incidence of the lung cancer is probably the most important reason. Despite these gloomy predictions, recent advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of many forms of cancer have reduced much of the fear and mystery that once surrounded this disease.
Pancreatic cancer symptoms early Are you looking for pancreatic cancer symptoms early? Most pancreatic cancers are adenocarcinomas. Few patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer have identifiable risk factors. Pancreatic cancer is highly lethal. Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose, and the diagnosis is often made late in the disease course. Symptoms include weight loss, back pain, and jaundice. The only curable treatment is surgical removal of all cancer. Chemotherapy after surgery can lower the chances of the cancer returning. Chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic cancer can extend life and improve the quality of life for people with the disease.
Symptoms of Angina and Treatment with Healthy Food and Diet Angina is often experienced as a pain in the chest, frequently after running
up a flight of stairs, but in extreme cases after getting out of a chair. It is
brought on by an in adequate supply of oxygen via the blood to the heart muscle.
Over many years, arteries begin laying down sticky deposits, which harden and
eventually cause a narrowing within the blood vessels.
Typical symptoms include pain in the centre of the chest, which
sometimes spreads to the neck/jaw area and down the left arm. The pain may also
be accompanied by breathlessness, feeling faint, sweating and/or nausea. If you
have these symptoms, seek medical attention as a matter of urgency.
Dissociative amnesia is inability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature, that is too extensive to be explained by ordinary forgetfulness and is not due to the direct effects of substance use or a neurological or other general medical condition. Five types of disturbance in recall have been described. In the following examples, the individual is involved in a traumatic automobile accident in which a loved one is killed.
Treatment Of Sleep Disorder Primary Insomnia
Relaxation therapies can be helpful in the treatment of chronic insomnia, hypnosis, meditation, deep breathing, and progressive muscle relaxation are effective. Success with these interventions requires a great deal of practice and motivation on the part of the client.
Biofeedback has been used with success in some clients. The use of biological variable, such a asectromyography, helps these clients increase sensitivity to their internal state of arousal.
Failure patterns of combined modality treatment in lung cancer By C.J. Hoekstra, H. Rijna, E.F. Smit, J.C. van Mourik, P.E. Postmus, A.A. Lammertsma, O.S. Hoekstra 17
Background: Patients with locally advanced non-small cell
lung cancer (NSCLC) may be treated with induction
chemotherapy (IC) followed by surgery with curative
Carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms and treatment Carpal tunnel syndrome is characterized by weakness, pain, tingling, numbness, or burning in the palm, the thumb, the index finger, the middle finger, and the ring finger, caused by entrapment of the median nerve in the wrist. (This condition, like any syndrome, is not a disease in itself but rather a collection of symptoms.) The condition most often affects women in their 30s, 40s, and 50s. it may develop or become worse because of work that requires repeated grasping, twisting, or turning of the hand and wrist, especially against resistance or while using vibrating tools.
The carpal tunnel is formed by the bones of the wrist (carpal means wrist) and the tough band of connective tissue known as the transverse carpal ligament. Among the structures inside the tunnel are the median nerve and the tendons that flex the fingers and thumb. Any swelling or thickening of tissue within the tunnel can cause the median nerve to be compressed between the transverse carpal ligament and the tendons and other contents of the tunnel. The squeezed nerve, which controls the thumb, index finger, and third finger, cannot work as it should, and the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome result.
Paleo Diet Recipes and Food List The modern dietary regimen known as the Paleolithic diet (abbreviated paleo diet or paleodiet), also popularly referred to as the caveman diet, Stone Age diet and hunter-gatherer diet, is a nutritional plan based on the presumed ancient diet of wild plants and animals that various hominid species habitually consumed during the Paleolithic era—a period of about 2.5 million years duration that ended around 10,000 years ago with the development of agriculture. In common usage, such terms as the "Paleolithic diet" also refer to the actual ancestral human diet. Centered on commonly available modern foods, the "contemporary" Paleolithic diet consists mainly of grass-fed pasture raised meats, fish, vegetables, fruit, roots, and nuts, and excludes grains, legumes, dairy products, salt, refined sugar, and processed oils.
Parkinsons disease treatment guidelines Excitement and tension can cause these symptoms to worsen, as can depression. Depression common among Parkinson’s disease victims, who are understandably upset by their loss of muscle control.
Parkinsons disease Diagnosis
Diagnostic evaluation involves a history, physical examination, and observation of the symptoms. If tremors are the only symptom displayed, tests may be done to rule out the possibility that other disorders are causing the tremors, such as liver disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic alcoholism, or over activity of the thyroid gland.
What is Lobotomy definition Are you looking for lobotomy definition? here is some good list definition for lobotomy on internet.
Lobotomy, in medicine, destruction or removal of the prefrontal lobes of the cortex of the brain. The procedure was popularized by Portuguese psychiatrist Antonio Egas Moniz in 1935 as a means of controlling aggressive or violent behavior—work for which Moniz received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1949. The original procedure was modified in 1937 to involve severing almost all the nerve tracts connecting the prefrontal lobes with the rest of the brain. Although the operation was hailed as a major advance in treating severely emotionally ill patients, physicians realized in the late 1940s that many patients were transformed by the lobotomy into inactive individuals without initiative.