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Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids

2011-03-23 > Various

What is Immune System

An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own healthy cells and tissues in order to function properly.

Detection is complicated as pathogens can evolve rapidly, and adapt to avoid the immune system and allow the pathogens to successfully infect their hosts.

Immune System Function

The immune system is composed of many interdependent cell types that collectively protect the body from bacterial, parasitic, fungal, viral infections and from the growth of tumor cells. Many of these cell types have specialized functions. The cells of the immune system can engulf bacteria, kill parasites or tumor cells, or kill viral-infected cells. Often, these cells depend on the T helper subset for activation signals in the form of secretions formally known as cytokines, lymphokines, or more specifically interleukins.

The Organs of the Immune System

Bone Marrow
All the cells of the immune system are initially derived from the bone marrow.

In the thymus gland lymphoid cells undergo a process of maturation and education prior to release into the circulation. This process allows T cells to develop the important attribute known as self tolerance.

The spleen is an immunologic filter of the blood. It is made up of B cells, T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and red blood cells.

Lymph nodes
Lymph nodes are small bean shaped structures lying along the course of lymphatics. They are aggregated in particular sites such as the neck, axillae, groins and para-aortic region.

immune system Killer T cell are a sub-group of T cells that kill cells that are infected with viruses (and other pathogens), or are otherwise damaged or dysfunctional. As with B cells, each type of T cell recognises a different antigen. Killer T cells are activated when their T cell receptor (TCR) binds to this specific antigen in a complex with the MHC Class I receptor of another cell. Recognition of this MHC:antigen complex is aided by a co-receptor on the T cell, called CD8. The T cell then travels throughout the body in search of cells where the MHC I receptors bear this antigen. When an activated T cell contacts such cells, it releases cytotoxins, such as perforin, which form pores in the target cell's plasma membrane, allowing ions, water and toxins to enter. The entry of another toxin called granulysin (a protease) induces the target cell to undergo apoptosis. T cell killing of host cells is particularly important in preventing the replication of viruses. T cell activation is tightly controlled and generally requires a very strong MHC/antigen activation signal, or additional activation signals provided by "helper" T cells.

More information: en.wikipedia.org

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Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #0Symptoms of Pregnancy
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Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #1Candida Symptoms and Treatment
Opportunistic infections caused by Candida species have increased substantially over the past 10 to 15 years. National data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that Candida species caused 7.7% of bloodstream infections nationwide from 1985 through 1988. Seriously ill, immunocompetent patients and severely immunocompromised patients are at particular risk for nosocomial candidal infections. Included in these groups are neonates, patients with various forms of cancer who are leukopenic, and patients who have had major surgery (especially gastrointestinal and pancreatic), severe burns, or bone marrow transplants.
Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #2Heart Attack Treatment Plans
The treatment of a heart attack varies somewhat from case to case. The first rule, however, is to get the person to a hospital as soon as possible. Almost one-third of people who have a heart attack die before reaching the hospital. Of those who do get to a hospital, the vast majority will recover. Complete cardiac arrest (meaning that the heart stops beating) can occur at any time during a heart attack. Even if cardiac arrest occurs, the patient has a good chance of survival if cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is started within four minutes of the arrest. CPR is a simple technique using mouth-to-mouth ventilation and chest compressions to pump oxygenated blood to the brain even though the victim's heart is not beating. Although CPR is a simple technique to learn, it cannot be learned from a book. CPR courses are taught by local chapters of the American Heart Association and American Red Cross. If everyone were trained in CPR, an estimated 100,000 lives would be saved each year in the United States alone.
Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #3Facing Cancer
While heart diseases mortality rates have declined steadily over the past 50 years, cancer mortality rates have increased consistently in the same period. Based on current rates, about 83 million-or one in three of us now living-will eventually develop cancer. Many factors have contributed to the rise in cancer mortality, but the increase in the incidence of the lung cancer is probably the most important reason. Despite these gloomy predictions, recent advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of many forms of cancer have reduced much of the fear and mystery that once surrounded this disease.
Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #4Pancreatic cancer symptoms early
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Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #5Symptoms of Angina and Treatment with Healthy Food and Diet
Angina is often experienced as a pain in the chest, frequently after running up a flight of stairs, but in extreme cases after getting out of a chair. It is brought on by an in adequate supply of oxygen via the blood to the heart muscle. Over many years, arteries begin laying down sticky deposits, which harden and eventually cause a narrowing within the blood vessels. Typical symptoms include pain in the centre of the chest, which sometimes spreads to the neck/jaw area and down the left arm. The pain may also be accompanied by breathlessness, feeling faint, sweating and/or nausea. If you have these symptoms, seek medical attention as a matter of urgency.
Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #6Dissociative Amnesia
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Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #7Treatment Of Sleep Disorder
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Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #8Failure patterns of combined modality treatment in lung cancer
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Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #9Carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms and treatment
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Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #10Paleo Diet Recipes and Food List
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Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #11Parkinsons disease treatment guidelines
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Immune System Facts Information and Function for Kids #12What is Lobotomy definition
Are you looking for lobotomy definition? here is some good list definition for lobotomy on internet. Lobotomy, in medicine, destruction or removal of the prefrontal lobes of the cortex of the brain. The procedure was popularized by Portuguese psychiatrist Antonio Egas Moniz in 1935 as a means of controlling aggressive or violent behavior—work for which Moniz received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1949. The original procedure was modified in 1937 to involve severing almost all the nerve tracts connecting the prefrontal lobes with the rest of the brain. Although the operation was hailed as a major advance in treating severely emotionally ill patients, physicians realized in the late 1940s that many patients were transformed by the lobotomy into inactive individuals without initiative.

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