In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
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Nephritis Symptoms and Treatment Nephritis is a disorder characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidneys. The glomeruli are tiny coiled blood vessels through which the liquid portion of the blood is filtered as it enters the outer structure of the kidneys. There are about one million of these tiny blood vessels in each kidney. The fluid from the blood passes from them into many little ducts called tubules. Water and various substances are secreted into and absorbed from the liquid in the tubules. The final product of this passage of filtered fluid from the glomeruli through the tubules to the uterus and then to the bladder is urine. It contains the excess fluid and waste products produced by the body during normal functioning.
Food Borne Illness Prevention Most of us have experienced the characteristic symptoms of diarrhea, nausea, cramping, and vomiting that prompt us to say, “It must be something I ate.” The number of cases of food poisoning in the United States has been growing (there are three millions of cases per year), which has prompted the Food and Drug Administration to make prevention of food contamination a high priority. Deaths in Pacific Northwest in 1994 attributed to consumption of Jack-in-the-Box hamburgers contaminated with Escherichia coli, a bacterial agent, increased people’s fears about the overall safety of meat, poultry and seafood.
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Migraine Headache Treatment and Medication Guidelines Sumatriptan
Sumatriptan (Imitrex) is available in three forms: subcutaneous injection,
nasal spray, and oral tablet. Injectable sumatriptan comes as a 6 mg dose for
use with an autoinjector. Subcutaneous sumatriptan is the most effective triptan.
It works extremely quickly with 50% headache response at 30 minutes, a one-hour
headache response of 77%, and more than 80% at two hours. Recurrence of migraine
within 24 hours after a headache response with injectable sumatriptan is 34-38%.
Recurrence with the spray and tablet is 35-40%.
Nasal spray sumatriptan. 20 mg is the optimal dose, with a two-hour headache
response of 64%. Almost 40% have headache response at 30 minutes. The spray
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Tinnitus Treatment 2011 A person with tinnitus hears noise in one or both ears even in the absence of actual external sound. This condition brings with it many side problems other than the obvious discomfort of the phantom sound. It is s usually accompanied by dizziness, loss of balance, insomnia, hearing difficulties, depression, anxiety, and other similar issues. For somebody with this condition, finding a tinnitus treatment becomes imperative.
Local Treatment of Allergic Dermatitis Most Persons who suffer with allergic dermatitis have accumulated numberless lotions, salves, ointments, and other local preparations. These have either been prescribed for them or suggested to them by their family or friends. For the most part, the effects of these long-continued local applications is to further irritate and traumatize the skin, so that in the end more harm than good is done. First take away all these various drugs and prescribe only such bland preparations as are least likely to injure the skin. These must be cautiously and carefully applied, observing their changing effect. Indeed, at times it is necessary to use the preparation of one area of the skin only, such as one arm or one leg, and observe the difference between the dermatitis on that are and on the area of the body where no preparation has been used.
The Pink Diet Patch and Pill First there were patches to help you quit smoking, then birth control, and now there is a patch for losing weight. Created for women trying to lose those last five pounds, the Pink Patch is a substance-infused sticker that you slap on once a day to curb your appetite. The ingredients, which seep into the skin, are intended to control your appetite for 24 hours while revving up your metabolism, curbing your appetite, boosting your energy and elevating your mood. Pink Patch is the newest product from Curb Your Cravings, responsible for the Hoodia patch.
Biophysical Assessment Definition Examples and Guidelines he heart rate test was more likely to be abnormal first, decreased breathing
activity next, decreased movement next and tone last. This exactly reflects
the model that I gave you at the beginning so that our clinical observation
of what goes wrong mirrors perfectly what was hypothesized in the model
to be the way in which things disappear.