In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
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Allergic Headache Certain types of headache are allergic in origin. In these cases patients develop headaches of variable severity when exposed to substances to which they are allergic. These may be food or inhalants. The symptoms vary with the person. As a rule, the pain is deep and sometimes throbbing, or it may acquire the characteristics of so-called sick headache or migraine. Not all instances of migraine are allergic in nature. When one realizes that chronic headache interfere with the patient's happiness and productivity, a serious effort must be made in each case to discover it cause. It must by no means assumed that every case of headache is allergic, because most frequently the cause of headache is something other than allergy. In the case of chronic recurrent headache one must always rule out some serious systemic condition like kidney disease, anemia, infection, or brain
Acute Abdomen Symptoms and Medications Clinical evaluation of abdominal pain
Onset and duration of the pain
The duration, acuity, and progression of pain should be assessed, and the exact location of maximal pain at onset and at present should be determined. The pain should be characterized as diffuse or localized. Time course of pain should be characterized as either constant, intermittent, decreasing, or increasing.
Acute exacerbation of longstanding pain suggests a complication of chronic disease such as peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or cancer. Sudden, intense pain often represents an intraabdominal catastrophe
(eg, ruptured aneurysm, mesenteric infarction, or intestinal perforation). Colicky abdominal pain of intestinal or ureteral obstruction tends to have a gradual onset.
Intermittent pain is associated with spasmodic increases in pressure within hollow organs.
Bowel ischemia initially causes diffuse crampy pain due to spasmodic contractions of the bowel. The pain becomes constant and more intense with bowel necrosis, causing pain out of proportion to physical findings. A history of intestinal angina can be elicited in half of patients.
Constant pain. Biliary colic from cystic or common bile duct obstruction usually is constant. Chronic pancreatitis causes constant pain. Constant pain also suggests parietal peritoneal inflammation, mucosal inflammatory conditions, or neoplasms.
Appendicitis initially causes intermittent periumbilical pain. Gradually the pain becomes constant in the right lower quadrant as peritoneal inflammation develops.
ADHD Symptoms in Children Are you looking for ADHD Symptoms in Children? Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or AD/HD or ADD) is a developmental disorder. It is primarily characterized by "the co-existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity, with each behavior occurring infrequently alone" and symptoms starting before seven years of age. ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children, affecting about 3 to 5 percent of children globally and diagnosed in about 2 to 16 percent of school aged children.
Psoriasis Treatment Guidelines and Pictures Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells. Psoriasis is not contagious. There are five types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular and erythrodermic. The most common form, plaque psoriasis, is commonly seen as red and white hues of scaly patches appearing on the top first layer of the epidermis (skin). Some patients, though, have no dermatological symptoms. Here is some guidelines for Psoriasis Treatment
Heat Stroke Long Term Effects Are you looking for heat stroke long term effects? here is some good article about heat stroke long term effects.
Heat stroke is a form of hyperthermia, an abnormally elevated body temperature with accompanying physical symptoms including changes in the nervous system function. Unlike heat cramps and heat exhaustion, two other forms of hyperthermia that are less severe, heat stroke is a true medical emergency that is often fatal if not properly and promptly treated.
Glaucoma Treatment Guidelines Are you looking for glaucoma treatment guidelines? Glaucoma is an eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently damaging vision in the affected eye(s) and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye (aqueous humour). The term 'ocular hypertension' is used for cases having constantly raised intraocular pressure (IOP) without any associated optic nerve damage. Conversely, the term 'normal' or 'low tension glaucoma' is suggested for the typical visual field defects when associated with a normal or low IOP.
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The initial management of the breast cancer patient consists of assigning a clinical stage based on examination. The stage may be altered once the final pathology of the tumor has been determined. Staging of breast cancer is based on the TNM staging system.
Causes of Asthma and Diet for Treatment Asthma is a disease that affects the bronchial tubes leading to our
lungs, resulting in periods of wheezing and shortness of breath. Not only has
the number of asthma sufferers escalated worldwide, but recent research has
indicated that more than 10% of South Africans are affected and that it is
definitely the most common of the chronic childhood illnesses. Pollution from
traffic fumes is without doubt a contributing factor, as during school holidays
incidences of attacks are reduced as there is less traffic.
Other atmospheric pollutants such as pollen, cigarette smoke and car exhaust
fumes can all be triggers. The incidence of occupational asthma is also high in
this country, caused by contact with airborne particles e.g. flour, soap powder
and paint. Even stressful situations and chronic exhaustion can trigger an
attack as can eating foods to which you have a sensitivity (such as sulphur
dioxide, used as a preservative in many dried fruit). You can also suffer
exercise-induced asthma. People who take paracetamol every day are twice as
likely to suffer asthma, and if you take it twice weekly you are 80% more likely
to be affected.
Best Heart Rate Monitor Reviews If you're trying to get in shape and lose weight, a heart rate monitor is an excellent way to monitor your intensity and see how many calories you're burning. The following list offers a wide variety of choices, from the exerciser who wants something simple to the multi-sport athlete who wants all the bells and whistles. These heart rate monitors have gotten some of the best reviews out there for functionality and quality.
Naegleria fowleri symptoms Are you looking for Naegleria fowleri symptoms? Naegleria is a microscopic ameba (single-celled living organism) that can cause a very rare, but severe, infection of the brain. The ameba is commonly found in warm freshwater (for example, lakes, rivers, and hot springs) and soil. Only one species (type) of Naegleria infects people: Naegleria fowleri.
Kidney Failure Symptoms in Men Renal failure or kidney failure (formerly called renal insufficiency) describes a medical condition in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter toxins and waste products from the blood. The two forms are acute (acute kidney injury) and chronic (chronic kidney disease); a number of other diseases or health problems may cause either form of renal failure to occur.
Kidney failure can occur from an acute situation or from chronic problems.
In acute renal failure, kidney function is lost rapidly and can occur from a variety of insults to the body. The list of causes is often categorized based on where the injury has occurred.
Prerenal causes (pre=before + renal=kidney) causes are due to decreased blood supply to the kidney.
Sciatica Treatment Exercises Guide and Image Sciatica differs from other types of back problems in the way the pain is felt. Sciatica pain can be a dull ache felt in the buttocks or a shooting pain that radiates down the leg. Sciatica symptoms can be numbness or 'pins and needles' and is commonly felt in the foot.
Sciatica back pain is located in the lower back but is usually less severe than other accompanying sciatica pain. There are several sciatica treatment options which can be used to give pain relief and can range from exercises to surgery.