In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Kegel Exercises for Women, Benefits and Instruction Are you looking for instruction and benefits Kegel Exercises for Women? A pelvic floor exercise, more commonly called a Kegel exercise (named after Dr. Arnold Kegel), consists of contracting and relaxing the muscles that form part of the pelvic floor, which are now sometimes colloquially referred to as the "Kegel muscles". Several tools exist to help with these exercises, though many are ineffective. Exercises are usually done to reduce urinary incontinence and aid with childbirth in women, and reduce premature ejaculatory occurrences in men, as well as increase the size and intensity of erections.
Best countries for Plastic Surgery Are you looking for Best countries for plastic surgery?
Cosmetic plastic surgery includes surgical and nonsurgical procedures that reshape normal structures of the body in order to improve appearance and self-esteem. Healthy individuals with a positive outlook and realistic expectations are appropriate candidates for cosmetic procedures. Plastic surgery is a personal choice and should be done for yourself, not to fulfill someone else's desires or to try to fit an ideal image. Because it is elective, cosmetic surgery is usually not covered by health insurance.
Codeine Cough Syrup and Side Effects Cough syrup with codeine
You have a hacking cough.Your chest hurts and your coughing is keeping you up at night. The over-the-counter cough drops and syrups are not doing it for you.As much as you hate going to see the doctor, you reluctantly decide that it is time to take a trip.The nurse takes your weight, takes your temperature, and takes your blood pressure.
Angina Pectoris Causes The most common symptom of coronary artery disease is angina pectoris, chest pain caused by insufficient oxygen getting to the muscles of the heart. Angina is usually described as a tightness, pressure, or dull aching pain under the breastbone and on the left side of the chest. Often it is described as "feeling like someone's sitting on my chest." The pain may radiate from the chest to the left arm or the left side of the jaw, and occasionally to the back.
The symptoms of angina are experienced in different ways by different people, but an individual usually experiences the same symptoms every time an attack occurs. Many experience sweating, shortness of breath, chills, or nausea during an attack. Others have no symptoms but a mild chest discomfort. Angina usually resolves five to ten minutes after exertion stops.
What is Graves Disease and Symptoms What Is Graves' Disease? First described by Sir Robert Graves in the early 19th century, Graves' disease is one of the most common of all thyroid problems. It is also the leading cause of hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces excessive hormones. Once the disorder has been correctly diagnosed, it is quite easy to treat. In some cases, Graves' disease goes into remission or disappears completely after several months or years. Left untreated, however, it can lead to serious complications -- even death. Although the symptoms can cause discomfort, Graves' disease generally has no long-term adverse health consequences if the patient receives prompt and proper medical care.
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia Coli EHEC Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enterohemorrhagic strain of the bacterium Escherichia coli and a cause of foodborne illness. Infection often leads to hemorrhagic diarrhea, and occasionally to kidney failure, especially in young children and elderly persons. Transmission is via the fecal-oral route, and most illness has been associated with eating undercooked, contaminated ground beef, swimming in or drinking contaminated water, and eating contaminated vegetables.
Colon Rectum Cancer Symptoms and Therapy Cancer of the colon (large intestine) and rectum is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Each year it claims an estimated 48,000 lives, and produces about 107,000 new cases—more than any other kind of cancer except skin cancer. It afflicts men and women about equally. The five-year survival rate from this form of cancer, usually after surgery, is about 90 percent where the cancer was localized about 65 percent where there was regional involvement. The death rate from colon and rectum cancer has decreased significantly over the past 20 years due to, among other factors, improved treatments and earlier diagnosis.
What is lisfranc injury and how to recovery A Lisfranc (midfoot) injury is a significant injury that often has a prolonged recovery time. Fracture of the midfoot bones and/or disruption of the midfoot ligaments (Figure 1) leads to pain, swelling, and often an inability to weight-bear. During normal standing and walking the ligaments of the midfoot are subject to forces that are 2-3 times body weight.
Diverticulitis Diet Foods to Avoid A low residue diet is one that consists of a daily intake of no more than 10 grams of fiber. While on this diet for an extended period of time it is recommended that a multi-vitamin or mineral supplement be taken daily. This ensures that minerals and vitamins lost while on the low residue diet are made by taking supplements.
Until recently, many doctors suggested avoiding foods with small seeds because it was believed that particles could lodge in the diverticula and cause inflammation. However, this is now a controversial point and no evidence supports this recommendation. So the seeds in tomatoes, zucchini, cucumbers, strawberries and raspberries, as well as poppy seeds, which are part of your diverticulitis diet, are generally considered harmless.
What is Mineral Nutrient Mineral are simple but important nutrients. As inorganic compounds they lack the complexity of vitamins, but they fulfill a variety of functions. For example, sodium and potassium affect shifts n body fluids, calcium and phosphorus contribute to the body's structure, iron is the core of hemoglobin (an oxygen-carrying compound in the blood), and iodine facilitates production of thyroxine ( hormone that influences metabolic rate).
There are 20 to 30 important nutritional minerals. Compared with the energy nutrients and water, minerals should be consumed in small amounts. Minerals that are present in the body and required in large amounts (more than 100 mg [1/50 teaspon] per day) are called major minerals or prominence, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and magnesium. Major minerals contribute from 60% to 80% of all inorganic material in the human body.
Guidelines for Exercise in the Cold Problems related to exercise in cold weather include frostbite and hypothermia (abnormally low body temperature). Frostbite can lead to permanent damage loss of a body part from gangrene. This can be prevented by adequately protecting exposed areas, such as fingers, the nose, ears, facial skin, and wrists. A stocking hat is preferable for two reasons: (1) blood vessels in the scalp do not constrict effectively, so a significant amount of heat is lost if a head covering is not worn, and (2) a stocking-type hat can be pulled down to protect the ears. In very cold or windy weather, you can use surgical or ski masks and scarves to keep facial skin warm and to moisten and warm inhaled air. All exposed or poorly protected flesh is vulnerable to frostbite when the temperature is low and the wind chill high.
Scurvy Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Scurvy is a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. It is characterized by anemia (deficiency of red blood cells), spongy gums, a tendency to bleed and abnormal bone and tooth formation. The disease may be either acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term).
Vitamin C is essential for the formation and maintenance of connective tissue, bone tissue, and teeth. It is also essential for the healing of wounds and burns.
Talking with Your Doctor about Cancer Diagnosis Anytime there is suspicion of cancer, the person involved is likely to react with great anxiety, fear, and anger. Emotional distress is sometimes so intense that the person involved is unable to severe as his or he own best advocate in making critical health-care decisions. If you find it difficult to know what to ask your doctor on a routine exam, imagine how hard it would be to discuss life or death options for yourself or loved one. Having a list of important questions to ask when you appear at the doctor’s office may help tremendously. Remember, your health-care provider should be your partner in making the best decisions for you. By actively challenging, questioning, and letting the physician know your wishes, difficult decisions may become easier.