In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Miley Cyrus Diet Plan and Exercise 2012 Miley Cyrus has come under fire by registered dieticians after she promoted her new gluten-free lifestyle on Twitter.
The 19-year-old had hit back at rumours that she is anorexic after she appeared to lose a substantial amount of weight in recent weeks.
But the performer said that she had a "gluten and lactose allergy" and told one fan that "everyone should try no gluten for a week."
Here is Miley Cyrus Diet Plan and Exercise
Prostate Cancer Symptoms in Men What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer is a malignant (cancerous) tumor (growth) that consists of cells from the prostate gland. Generally, the tumor usually grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. During this time, the tumor produces little or no symptoms or outward signs (abnormalities on physical examination).
Scurvy Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Scurvy is a disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. It is characterized by anemia (deficiency of red blood cells), spongy gums, a tendency to bleed and abnormal bone and tooth formation. The disease may be either acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term).
Vitamin C is essential for the formation and maintenance of connective tissue, bone tissue, and teeth. It is also essential for the healing of wounds and burns.
Bill Clinton Diet Vegan Plan Are you looking for about bill clinton diet vegan plan? When Bill Clinton announced last year that he was dropping meat and dairy in favor of a plant-based diet, it immediately threw the spotlight on veganism and its associated health benefits.
"I'm trying to be one of those experimenters," said Clinton. "Since 1986, several hundred people who have tried essentially a plant-based diet, not ingesting any cholesterol from any source, has seen their bodies start to heal themselves - break up the arterial blockage, break up the calcium deposits around the heart. 82 percent of the people who have done this have had this result, so I want to see if I can be one of them."
Psoriasis Treatment Guidelines and Pictures Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells. Psoriasis is not contagious. There are five types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular and erythrodermic. The most common form, plaque psoriasis, is commonly seen as red and white hues of scaly patches appearing on the top first layer of the epidermis (skin). Some patients, though, have no dermatological symptoms. Here is some guidelines for Psoriasis Treatment
Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Are you looking for chemotherapy for breast cancer? here is some article about chemotherapy for breast cancer.
The initial management of the breast cancer patient consists of assigning a clinical stage based on examination. The stage may be altered once the final pathology of the tumor has been determined. Staging of breast cancer is based on the TNM staging system.
Facing Cancer While heart diseases mortality rates have declined steadily over the past 50 years, cancer mortality rates have increased consistently in the same period. Based on current rates, about 83 million-or one in three of us now living-will eventually develop cancer. Many factors have contributed to the rise in cancer mortality, but the increase in the incidence of the lung cancer is probably the most important reason. Despite these gloomy predictions, recent advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of many forms of cancer have reduced much of the fear and mystery that once surrounded this disease.
Exactly who does smoking affect baby Cigarette smoking produces a number of abnormalities in a mother’s body. First, cyanide (a strong poison) is produced from smoking. This by product from smoking goes directly to your tissue and to the tissue of your baby, producing hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in the individual cell. In addition to this, nicotine causes constriction of the boob vessels of your body, decreasing the amount of blood flowing through the placenta and adding to the hypoxia produced by the cyanide.
Best Baby Formula Brand Do you looking for best baby formula brand? here is some good article about best baby formula.
When youâ€™re deciding which formula is right for your baby, you will need to take several factors into consideration. Think about her health and dietary needs, her age, and the cost and preparation time of different formula milks. Our guide to formula milks will help you to choose the right type for your baby.
New Treatments for Newborn Neurology Hypoxic ischemic injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity.
Usually it is a combination of hypoxia and ischemia that basically results in
decreased supply of oxygen to the tissue, and that’s the cause of it.
Hypercapnia and acidosis also contribute significantly to the development of
hypoxic ischemic injury. There’s also biochemical and cellular level changes
that occur, such as increased glycolysis. You have lactic acid production, you
have decreased ATP production as well and you have free radical production, and
therefore accumulation of extracellular potassium and intracellular calcium.
They occur frequently in the different parts during the pregnancy and the labor
and delivery process that accounts for this. Twenty percent is noted during the
antepartum, about 35% is noted in the intrapartum period and there are other
factors, such as combination factors, both intrapartum and antepartum that
occurs about 35%. And post-natally only 10%. Obviously what we mean by
postnatal, it means after the delivery. It occurs in up to 1.5% of live birth
infants, and the incidence is greater … it the child is greater than 36 weeks
age of gestation and therefore more or less a full term child - full term being
37 to 40 weeks age of gestation - the incidence is quite low. It’s only 9%.
However, in children less than 28 weeks or between 24 weeks to 35 weeks, the
incidence can be as high as 80%.
Uterus Didelphys Pregnancy and Symptoms Uterus didelphys (sometimes also uterus didelphis) represents a uterine malformation where the uterus is present as a paired organ as the embryogenetic fusion of the mullerian ducts failed to occur. As a result there is a double uterus with two separate cervices, and often a double vagina as well. Each uterus has a single horn linked to the ipsilateral fallopian tube that faces its ovary.
In a female fetus, the uterus starts out as two small tubes. As the fetus develops, the tubes normally join to create one larger, hollow organ — the uterus. Sometimes, however, the tubes don't join completely. Instead, each one develops into a separate structure. This condition is called double uterus (uterus didelphys).
Ketamine long term side effects Are you looking for ketamine long term side effects? Ketamine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist. At high, fully anesthetic level doses, ketamine has also been found to bind to opioid μ receptors type 2 in cultured human neuroblastoma cells, however without agonist activity, and to sigma receptors in rats. Also, ketamine interacts with muscarinic receptors, descending monoaminergic pain pathways and voltage-gated calcium channels. Like other drugs of this class such as tiletamine and phencyclidine (PCP), it induces a state referred to as "dissociative anesthesia" and is used as a recreational drug.
Hypertension treatment food and nutrients When pressure exerted by blood on the walls of the arteries is greater than normal, blood pressure rises. Usually, blood pressure falls when at rest. It rises in response to strenuous physical activity, stress, or a perceived danger in which the sympathetic nervous system dominates, arteries constrict and more blood is sent to the brain increasing blood pressure. This heightened state of the sympathetic system does not seem to retreat in individuals with hypertension and damage to the heart, kidney, arteries, and other organs becomes inevitable.
Blood pressure is considered high at a reading of 140/90. There are no symptoms of the illness and it is recommended individuals over 40 be checked. Hypertension can be controlled by permanent diet and lifestyle changes; this includes reducing stress, maintaining proper weight (not more than 5 lb overweight), and eating foods containing compounds that reduce blood pressure such as celery, garlic, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Having a home monitor is helpful. Smoking, alcohol, refined sugar, food allergies, and high sodium foods can contribute to hypertension. Some people may need extra calcium to stabilize blood pressure. Some individuals are salt sensitive which cause a rise in their blood pressure. Daily exercises and various stress reduction techniques lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure.