In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Nasopharyngeal cancer symptoms and prognosis Are you looking for Nasopharyngeal cancer symptoms and prognosis? Nasopharyngeal cancer develops in the nasopharynx, an area in the back of the nose toward the base of skull. To understand nasopharyngeal cancer, it helps to know about the structure and function of the nasopharynx.
Treatment Of Sleep Disorder Primary Insomnia
Relaxation therapies can be helpful in the treatment of chronic insomnia, hypnosis, meditation, deep breathing, and progressive muscle relaxation are effective. Success with these interventions requires a great deal of practice and motivation on the part of the client.
Biofeedback has been used with success in some clients. The use of biological variable, such a asectromyography, helps these clients increase sensitivity to their internal state of arousal.
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Ten percent of women will develop endometriosis, characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue at sites outside the uterine cavity. The ectopic endometrial cells cause cyclical dysmenorrhea. The most common sites are the ovaries, posterior cul-de-sac, uterosacral ligaments, posterior broad ligament, and anterior cul-de-sac. The uterine serosa, rectovaginal septum, cervix, vagina rectosigmoid, and bladder are less frequent locations.
US judge blocks graphic warning on cigarette U.S. District Judge Richard Leon, in a 29-page ruling Monday, granted the preliminary injunction because he believed there was a "substantial likelihood" the cigarette companies ultimately would win "on the merits of their position that these mandatory graphic images unconstitutionally compel speech."
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Weight loss has been the major recommendation by physicians for women with PCOS. Lifestyle modifications including stress reduction, exercise, and group support, along with a decrease in total energy intake, have had positive results. A weight decrease of only 5% of total body weight is associated with decreased insulin levels, increased fertility, reduced hirsutism and acne, and lower free testosterone levels.
Anxiety As A Response To Stress Stress is the wear and tear that life causes on the body. It occurs when a person has difficulty dealing with life situations, problems and goals. Each person handles stress differently; one person can thrive in a situation that creates great distress for another. For example, may people view public speaking as scary, but for teachers and actors it is an everyday, enjoyable experience. Marriage, children, airplanes, snakes, a new job, a new school, and leaving home are examples of stress-causing events.
Hans Selye (1956, 1974), an endocrinologist, identified the physiologic aspects of stress, which he labeled the General Adaptation Syndrome. He used laboratory animals to assess biologic system changes the stages of the body’s physical responses to pain, heat, toxins, and restraint; and later the mind’s emotional responses to real or perceived stressors. He determined three stages of reaction to stress:
Chrons disease symptoms in children Are you looking for chrons disease symptoms in children? Crohn's disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is at its worst), vomiting, or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, and lack of concentration.
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Candida albicans Causes, Those at Risk, Symptoms and Treatment Candida albicans is a fungus that is normally present on the skin and on membranes of the mouth, throat, intestines, and vagina. It becomes an infecting agent only when there is some change in the body environment that allows it to grow out of control.
Is smoking harmful during pregnancy Your smoking can kill your baby. And, if the baby does not die, your smoking can cause such significant brain and body damage that your child will never be able to function as a normal, healthy person.
The earliest effect of the smoking related to pregnancy is infertility. People who smoke are less likely to get pregnant that people who do not smoke. If you do get pregnant, there is a do related effect on miscarriage. The more cigarettes you smoke, the more likely you are to miscarry).
Contraception Options for Women and Men Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate is an aqueous suspension of
microcrystals of progestin given by intramuscular injection every 11-13 weeks.
The approved contraceptive formulation has a concentration of 150 mg/mL; a
standard 1-cc dose is administered regardless of patient weight. Immediately
after injection, the site may be tamponaded, but massage must be avoided. Depot
medroxyprogesterone acetate is usually administered within the first 7 days of
the menstrual cycle; if given after that time, the woman should be advised to
use a back-up method for the next 7 days. The first year typical failure rate is
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Rheumatoid Arthritis Symptoms and Treatment Rheumatoid Arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that primarily affects the joints. Affects
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Acute Leukemia Prognosis, Symptoms and Treatment Acute Leukemia is neoplastic disorders characterized by proliferation of immature hematopoietic
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of diagnosis. Increase risk is associated with the following: