In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
How to Managing Your Weight Managing your weight is not an easy task. To ensure success, you must a real change in the way you eat and consider it a lifelong commitment rather than a diet. Analyzing where you are right now and then taking steps outlined below will help you lose excess weight
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Psoriasis Treatment Guidelines and Pictures Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells. Psoriasis is not contagious. There are five types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular and erythrodermic. The most common form, plaque psoriasis, is commonly seen as red and white hues of scaly patches appearing on the top first layer of the epidermis (skin). Some patients, though, have no dermatological symptoms. Here is some guidelines for Psoriasis Treatment
Menstrual Disorders (Amenorrhea) Among the health concerns of women that specifically belong to gynecology are menstrual disorders. Normally, the first menstrual period (menarche) occurs about age 12 or 13, or sometimes earlier or later. Periods are generally irregular for the first year or two, and then they tend to recur at intervals of 24 to 32 days. Each period begins about two weeks after ovulation, or the release of an egg cell (ovum) from the ovary—unless, of course, the ovum happens to be fertilized in the interval and pregnancy interrupts the whole process.
The menstrual flow, which lasts from three to seven days, is composed mainly of serum, mucus, and dead cells shed from the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. The loss of blood is minimal, usually from two to four ounces. The volume of flow, as well as the time schedule, tends to be fairly regular for most women. When one’s menstrual pattern varies noticeably from the expected pattern, and in the absence of pregnancy, it may be assign of a physical or emotional disorder.
What is lisfranc injury and how to recovery A Lisfranc (midfoot) injury is a significant injury that often has a prolonged recovery time. Fracture of the midfoot bones and/or disruption of the midfoot ligaments (Figure 1) leads to pain, swelling, and often an inability to weight-bear. During normal standing and walking the ligaments of the midfoot are subject to forces that are 2-3 times body weight.
Sinusitis Symptoms and Treatment Sinusitis is an infection (usually bacterial) of one or more of the sinuses. It occurs more commonly in adults than in children. The sinuses are air-filled cavities located within the facial bone structure and connected to the nose. There are four major groups; frontal, ethmoidal, sphenoidal, and maxillary.
The sinuses are lined with mucous membrane and are normally kept clear when mucus drains through them into the nasal passages. If they are obstructed, normal drainage cannot occur, and infection of the sinuses can result.
Bipolar Disorder Symptoms Bipolar I disorder typically begins in the teenage years, the 20s, or the 30s. The first episode could be manic, depressive, or mixed. One common mode of onset is mild retarded depression, or hypersomnia, for a few weeks or months, which then switches into a manic episode.
Allergy In Children The importance of an early diagnosis of allergy cannot be overemphasized. This diagnosis should be made in infancy or early childhood. This involves not only recognition that the condition affecting the child is allergic, but also a serious attempt at discovering the cause of the allergy. In doing this, however, one meets frequently with great deal of resistance by the mother because she does not want to see the child hurt, r because she somehow has a vague suspicion that skin testing endangers the child's health. The mother must understand the importance of such an early diagnosis. She must realize that delay is equivalent to neglect, and that neglect needlessly expose the child to the dangers of complications which may result from an untreated allergy a case of hay fever or case of asthma in a child. After a few years, however, this condition becomes complicated by nasal infection or by bronchitis, or by changes in the tissues of the lungs. These changes become refractory to treatment, so that even if the allergy is discovered, treatment of complications becomes difficult if not impossible. The mother must also understand that skin testing, if properly done, is not dangerous and does not affect the child's physical condition.
The effect of Monosodium Glutamate The effect of monosodium glutamate on the apoptosis
of rat thymocytes and Bcl-2 protein expression
Voja Pavlović, Snežana Cekić
Arch Med Sci 2006; 2, 1: 28-31
Introduction: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid
widely spread in modern nutrition. Numerous recent studies have shown the
existance of glutamic receptors on different non-neuronal cells, which among
others also include lymphocytes and thymocytes. However, it has not yet been
precisely established what modulatory effect is created by the activation of these
receptors on the immune system cells.
Cleanse Diet Oprah dr Oz On August 19, 2009, Harpo, Inc., producers of The Oprah Winfrey Show and The Dr. Oz Show, along with Dr. Mehmet Oz, filed a trademark infringement complaint against 40 Internet marketers of dietary supplements, including acai berry products among others. Neither Ms. Winfrey nor Dr. Oz has ever sponsored or endorsed any acai berry, resveratrol, colon cleanse or dietary supplement product.
Symptoms of Angina and Treatment with Healthy Food and Diet Angina is often experienced as a pain in the chest, frequently after running
up a flight of stairs, but in extreme cases after getting out of a chair. It is
brought on by an in adequate supply of oxygen via the blood to the heart muscle.
Over many years, arteries begin laying down sticky deposits, which harden and
eventually cause a narrowing within the blood vessels.
Typical symptoms include pain in the centre of the chest, which
sometimes spreads to the neck/jaw area and down the left arm. The pain may also
be accompanied by breathlessness, feeling faint, sweating and/or nausea. If you
have these symptoms, seek medical attention as a matter of urgency.
Enlarged Heart Treatment Enlarged heart Definition
Enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) isn't a disease, but rather a symptom of another condition.
Pancreatic cancer symptoms early Are you looking for pancreatic cancer symptoms early? Most pancreatic cancers are adenocarcinomas. Few patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer have identifiable risk factors. Pancreatic cancer is highly lethal. Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose, and the diagnosis is often made late in the disease course. Symptoms include weight loss, back pain, and jaundice. The only curable treatment is surgical removal of all cancer. Chemotherapy after surgery can lower the chances of the cancer returning. Chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic cancer can extend life and improve the quality of life for people with the disease.