In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Anxiety Treatment Guide Discontinue caffeinated beverages and avoid excess alcohol. Daily exercise and adequate sleep (with the use of medication if necessary) should be advised.
Carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms and treatment Carpal tunnel syndrome is characterized by weakness, pain, tingling, numbness, or burning in the palm, the thumb, the index finger, the middle finger, and the ring finger, caused by entrapment of the median nerve in the wrist. (This condition, like any syndrome, is not a disease in itself but rather a collection of symptoms.) The condition most often affects women in their 30s, 40s, and 50s. it may develop or become worse because of work that requires repeated grasping, twisting, or turning of the hand and wrist, especially against resistance or while using vibrating tools.
The carpal tunnel is formed by the bones of the wrist (carpal means wrist) and the tough band of connective tissue known as the transverse carpal ligament. Among the structures inside the tunnel are the median nerve and the tendons that flex the fingers and thumb. Any swelling or thickening of tissue within the tunnel can cause the median nerve to be compressed between the transverse carpal ligament and the tendons and other contents of the tunnel. The squeezed nerve, which controls the thumb, index finger, and third finger, cannot work as it should, and the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome result.
Colon Rectum Cancer Symptoms and Therapy Cancer of the colon (large intestine) and rectum is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Each year it claims an estimated 48,000 lives, and produces about 107,000 new cases—more than any other kind of cancer except skin cancer. It afflicts men and women about equally. The five-year survival rate from this form of cancer, usually after surgery, is about 90 percent where the cancer was localized about 65 percent where there was regional involvement. The death rate from colon and rectum cancer has decreased significantly over the past 20 years due to, among other factors, improved treatments and earlier diagnosis.
Physical Allergy Some persons, when exposed to changes in temperature such as cold or heat or when exposed to sudden effort or sunlight, may develop manifestation, such as asthma, hay fever, or hives. In these instances the cold or heat acts as an antigen, much the same as milk or pollen may produce allergy. The demonstration of the presence of such sensitivity requires special tests. In the case of a patient sensitive to cold one tests the patient by attaching a small tube containing ice water to the skin of the arm. The tube is held in place with adhesive. Sensitivity to cold is determined by the appearance of large welt or hive at the point of contact. A similar of allergy are also included those patients who when exposed to a draft or a cod breeze develop nasal symptoms followed by severe so-called sinus headaches.
Facing Cancer While heart diseases mortality rates have declined steadily over the past 50 years, cancer mortality rates have increased consistently in the same period. Based on current rates, about 83 million-or one in three of us now living-will eventually develop cancer. Many factors have contributed to the rise in cancer mortality, but the increase in the incidence of the lung cancer is probably the most important reason. Despite these gloomy predictions, recent advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of many forms of cancer have reduced much of the fear and mystery that once surrounded this disease.
Actinic Keratosis Pictures, Causes and Treatment Actinic keratosis (senile or solar keratosis) is the most common precancerous dermatosis.
Single or multiple lesions develop on areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, the backs of
the hands, the forearms, the neck, and balding scalp. Actinic cheilitis denotes scaly or
crusted patches of precancer on the vermilion of the lips. In actinic keratosis, lesions are
round or irregularly shaped, erythematous or tan plaques with an adherent scaly or rough
surface. They range in size from several millimeters to 1 cm or more.
Locally invasive lesions
have been reported to develop in 12 percent of patients with actinic keratoses. These lesions
result in squamous cell carcinomas that occasionally metastasize [see Malignant Epithelial
Tumors, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, below].1,14 Signs that an actinic keratosis has become
malignant are elevation, ulceration or inflammation, and recent enlargement, usually to a
diameter greater than 1 cm.
Psoriasis Symptoms and Treatment Psoriasis is common, affecting 1.5-2.0% of the population. It affects all ages, with bimodal peaks of incidence at ages 20-30 and 50-60 years. Plaque-type psoriasis is easily identified by its discrete round orange-red plaques with silver scale on the scalp, elbows, knees, or trunk. When psoriasis appears as intertriginous, guttate, or nail-limited psoriasis, the diagnosis can be challenging.
Etiology. Psoriasis exhibits abnormalities of epidermal proliferation and migration of inflammatory cells, resulting in accelerated epidermal turnover time. Psoriasis, particularly extensive psoriasis, has a strong genetic component. Exacerbants of psoriasis include stress, probably alcohol, many drugs, infection, and steroids.
Planning a Nutrition Strategy for Wellness Fortunately it is not necessary to be a nutritionist to form a nutrition strategy that works for you. A nutrition plan will work only if it is personalizing your nutrition plan.
Types of Food Poisoning Food poisoning occurs when you swallow food or water that has been contaminated with certain types of bacteria, parasites, viruses, or toxins.
Most cases of food poisoning are due to common bacteria such as Staphylococcus or Escherichia coli (E. coli).Here is some types of food poisoning.
Migraine Headache Treatment and Medication Guidelines Sumatriptan
Sumatriptan (Imitrex) is available in three forms: subcutaneous injection,
nasal spray, and oral tablet. Injectable sumatriptan comes as a 6 mg dose for
use with an autoinjector. Subcutaneous sumatriptan is the most effective triptan.
It works extremely quickly with 50% headache response at 30 minutes, a one-hour
headache response of 77%, and more than 80% at two hours. Recurrence of migraine
within 24 hours after a headache response with injectable sumatriptan is 34-38%.
Recurrence with the spray and tablet is 35-40%.
Nasal spray sumatriptan. 20 mg is the optimal dose, with a two-hour headache
response of 64%. Almost 40% have headache response at 30 minutes. The spray
comes in a single-use device. When sniffed, it causes a terrible taste in the
back of the throat; therefore, patients should spray it once in one nostril and
not sniff in.
Erythema Multiforme and Stevens Johnson Syndrome Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute hypersensitivity reaction characterized by distinctive skin lesions and mucous membrane involvement that has a spectrum of severity. It occurs in two forms: the more common "minor" type and the more severe "major" type, also called Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Sometimes EM includes toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) or Lyell disease. EM minor first was described completely by von Hebra in 1866; Stevens and Johnson described the major variant in 1922. EM occurs more often in males, and 20% to 50% of cases occur in the pediatric age group, although rarely in those younger than age 3 years. A winter predominance is suggested.
The pathologic process responsible for EM is unknown. A review of the literature generates an extensive list of causative or inciting agents. Most frequently mentioned are sulfonamide antibiotics and anticonvulsants, both used commonly in pediatric practice. Malignancies, radiotherapy, autoimmune diseases, and infectious agents such as mycoplasma also have been implicated as possible causes. In 1992, Weston et al described a high incidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in EM lesions among both adults and children with or without a preceding history of HSV infection.
Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treatment Guidelines What is Myelodysplastic syndromes? Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is a term for a group of disorders that cause the bone marrow to produce an inadequate number of healthy blood cells — red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. In MDS, cells in the bone marrow responsible for making blood cells (stem cells) don't mature, don't make enough blood cells or make defective cells.
Myelodysplastic Syndrome Treatment
The prognosis depends on the following:
Whether the myelodysplastic syndrome occurred after chemotherapy or radiation therapy for another disease.
The number of blast cells in the bone marrow.
Whether one or more types of blood cells are affected.
Certain changes in the chromosomes.
Treatment options depend on the following:
Whether the myelodysplastic syndrome occurred after chemotherapy or radiation therapy for another disease.
Whether the myelodysplastic syndrome has progressed after being treated.
The age and general health of the patient.