In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Food, Diet, and Asthma Patients with asthma often wonder whether the food they eat may make their symptoms worse. There is still much uncertainty about diet and asthma, and so confusing advise is often given.
Meningitis and Sepsis in Children
Sepsis in the newborn. By and large the most common organism is group B strep and most of the disease reflects maternal colonization with group B Streptococci. The risk of a child having sepsis in the newborn period increases with reports of a number of other factors, including maternal fever, prolonged rupture of membranes, premature rupture of membranes, being a low birth weight infant where they may not have received antibody from the mother which would be protective against these encapsulated bacteria. Epidemiological data continue to link lower socioeconomic status with a higher risk of sepsis, and a point not to forget; when you see one pair of twins who is septic, the other should be promptly evaluated because there tends to be a high concordance rate of group B strep disease among twins. The other point, early onset disease. Sepsis appearing in the first week of life tends to be sepsis or pneumonia. >From seven days of age to 28 days of age sepsis is more frequently associated with bacterial meningitis.
Miley Cyrus Diet Plan and Exercise 2012 Miley Cyrus has come under fire by registered dieticians after she promoted her new gluten-free lifestyle on Twitter.
The 19-year-old had hit back at rumours that she is anorexic after she appeared to lose a substantial amount of weight in recent weeks.
But the performer said that she had a "gluten and lactose allergy" and told one fan that "everyone should try no gluten for a week."
Here is Miley Cyrus Diet Plan and Exercise
Transgender surgery procedure and cost As you were growing up, how did you know you were a girl or a boy? Was it because you had a vagina or a penis? Or was it something more than your physiology? Some people feel that their minds and bodies don't quite match up. This feeling is commonly known as transsexualism -- a type of gender identity disorder. Transsexuals are dissatisfied with their sexual identity, body characteristics or gender role. They wish to live as the opposite gender and may transform their bodies through gender reassignment surgery - a collection of procedures commonly known as a "sex change."
Infertility information for women Most traditional-age college students are interested in preventing pregnancy. However, increasing numbers of other people are trying to do just the opposite: they are trying to become pregnant. It is estimated that about one in six couples has a problem with infertility. The couples wish to become pregnant but are unable to do so.
What is Hay Fever and Remedies Are you looking for article about What is Hay Fever? and What are remedies for hay fever? Here is some good article about What is Hay Fever and Remedies for Hay Fever.
If you have hay fever, you're probably allergic to pollen. That's why you get symptoms in the spring, summer, or fall, when there's lots of pollen around.
Anxiety Treatment Guide Discontinue caffeinated beverages and avoid excess alcohol. Daily exercise and adequate sleep (with the use of medication if necessary) should be advised.
Exactly who does smoking affect baby Cigarette smoking produces a number of abnormalities in a mother’s body. First, cyanide (a strong poison) is produced from smoking. This by product from smoking goes directly to your tissue and to the tissue of your baby, producing hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in the individual cell. In addition to this, nicotine causes constriction of the boob vessels of your body, decreasing the amount of blood flowing through the placenta and adding to the hypoxia produced by the cyanide.
Filariasis Symptoms and Treatment The species of mosquitoes that transmit malaria and yellow fever, disease caused by protozoa and viruses, also transmit filariasis, caused by a parasitic worm—a nematode or roundworm. Filariasis affects 300 million people living in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The worm invades the subcutaneous tissues and lymph system of the human body, blocking the flow lymph and producing symptoms of inflammation, edema, abscesses, and, in one form of the disease, blindness. Filariasis is not unknown to Americans; some 15,000 soldiers contracted disease during World War II fighting in the Pacific Theater, and cases have been reported along the Carolina coast area. But most of the victims of filariasis live in a region extending from Africa through Asia to the islands of New Guinea and Borneo.
Listeria symptoms in adults and treatment Are you looking for listeria symptoms in adults? Listeriosis is a bacterial infection caused by a Gram-positive, motile bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes. Listeriosis is relatively rare and occurs primarily in newborn infants, elderly patients, and patients who are immunocompromised.
The symptoms of listeriosis usually last 7–10 days, with the most common symptoms being fever, muscle aches, and vomiting. Diarrhea is another, but less common symptom. If the infection spreads to the nervous system it can cause meningitis, an infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord. Symptoms of meningitis are headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance, and convulsions.
Recognizing Warning Signs of Stroke Stroke is a general term for a wide variety of crises (sometimes called cerebrovascular accidents [CVAs] or brain attacks) the result from blood vessel damage in the brain. African Americans have a much greater risk of stroke than white American do, probably because African Americans have greater likelihood of having hypertension than white Americans. Data for 1998 indicate that 158,448 deaths and half a million new cases of stroke occurred. Just as the heart muscle needs adequate blood supply, so does the brain. Any disturbance in the proper supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain can pose a threat.
Perhaps the most common form of stroke results from the blockage of a cerebral (brain) artery. Similar to coronary occlusions, cerebrovascular occlusions can be started by a clot that travels from another part of the body to the brain, called an embolus. The resultant accidents (cerebral thrombosis or cerebral embolism) cause between 80% and 90% of all strokes. The portion of the brain deprived of oxygen and nutrients can literally die.
Parkinsons disease treatment guidelines Excitement and tension can cause these symptoms to worsen, as can depression. Depression common among Parkinson’s disease victims, who are understandably upset by their loss of muscle control.
Parkinsons disease Diagnosis
Diagnostic evaluation involves a history, physical examination, and observation of the symptoms. If tremors are the only symptom displayed, tests may be done to rule out the possibility that other disorders are causing the tremors, such as liver disease, multiple sclerosis, chronic alcoholism, or over activity of the thyroid gland.