In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Tinnitus Treatment 2011 A person with tinnitus hears noise in one or both ears even in the absence of actual external sound. This condition brings with it many side problems other than the obvious discomfort of the phantom sound. It is s usually accompanied by dizziness, loss of balance, insomnia, hearing difficulties, depression, anxiety, and other similar issues. For somebody with this condition, finding a tinnitus treatment becomes imperative.
Angina Useful Remedies
The amino acid L-carnitine taken daily (1-3g) helps to improve the functioning of the heart and reduces symptoms associated with angina.
Co-enzyme Q10 – 150mg a day – has helped angina patients manage more exercise with less symptoms.
Natural-source vitamin E (400-500 IU a day) taken for at least one or two years thins blood naturally. If you are taking blood-thinning drugs, have your blood checked regularly by a doctor.
Fish oil supply EPA and DHA, which are essential fats that thin the blood naturally. Take 3mg daily to help reduce chest pain.
The herb remedy Hawthorne, 1-2ml tincture or 1-2g in tablets daily, helps protect blood vessels and improved heart function.
Take 2g of vitamin C daily with 1g of the amino acid lysine, which work together to help reverse atherosclerosis.
Magnesium helps regulate the heartbeat. Begin on 200mg daily, thereafter increasing to 400mg.
Include a good quality multivitamin and mineral in this regimen.
Begin using grapefruit pectin fibre over your breakfast cereal or in low-fat yoghurts. In numerous clinical trials, regular intake has been shown to lower LDL levels (the ‘bad’ cholesterol) and the gently remove some of the sticky plague from artery walls. Available from all good health
Symptoms of pneumonia in adults Are you looking for symptoms of pneumonia in adults?
Pneumonia is a general term that refers to an infection of the lungs, which can be caused by a variety of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.
Most cases of pneumonia are caused by viruses, including adenoviruses, rhinovirus, influenza virus (flu), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza virus (which causes croup).
TLC Diet Menu plan and GuideLines The Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Diet was devised by the U.S. government's National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) to give guidance to people who have blood cholesterol problems. The TLC Diet doesn't have a recommendation for how many calories people with cholesterol problems should eat daily because calories don't affect cholesterol levels directly.
Foods to help anemia treatment Abnormally low numbers of red blood cells and reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in those cells results in anemia. Because red blood cells are needed as carriers of oxygen to the tissues, oxygen supply to the body is subsequently interrupted. The exact cause of anemia must be diagnosed by physician before any treatment can begin.
Anemia can be caused bay an iron deficiency due to blood loss from excessive menstrual flow, gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers, during pregnancy, breast-feeding, from frequent blood donations, colon cancer, or lack of iron in the diet. It can result from autoimmunity, a condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks itself, in this case the red blood cells; or from a malfunction of the bone marrow system when it is adversely affected by infection, cancer or toxic chemical exposure or radiation. Anemia can also occur because of a deficiency of vitamin B6, B12, folic acid, or copper; and from certain anti-inflammatory drugs or antibiotics or an excessive consumption of alcohol. Genetics may also be a factor.
Bipolar Disorder Symptoms Bipolar I disorder typically begins in the teenage years, the 20s, or the 30s. The first episode could be manic, depressive, or mixed. One common mode of onset is mild retarded depression, or hypersomnia, for a few weeks or months, which then switches into a manic episode.
Acute Abdomen Symptoms and Medications Clinical evaluation of abdominal pain
Onset and duration of the pain
The duration, acuity, and progression of pain should be assessed, and the exact location of maximal pain at onset and at present should be determined. The pain should be characterized as diffuse or localized. Time course of pain should be characterized as either constant, intermittent, decreasing, or increasing.
Acute exacerbation of longstanding pain suggests a complication of chronic disease such as peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or cancer. Sudden, intense pain often represents an intraabdominal catastrophe
(eg, ruptured aneurysm, mesenteric infarction, or intestinal perforation). Colicky abdominal pain of intestinal or ureteral obstruction tends to have a gradual onset.
Intermittent pain is associated with spasmodic increases in pressure within hollow organs.
Bowel ischemia initially causes diffuse crampy pain due to spasmodic contractions of the bowel. The pain becomes constant and more intense with bowel necrosis, causing pain out of proportion to physical findings. A history of intestinal angina can be elicited in half of patients.
Constant pain. Biliary colic from cystic or common bile duct obstruction usually is constant. Chronic pancreatitis causes constant pain. Constant pain also suggests parietal peritoneal inflammation, mucosal inflammatory conditions, or neoplasms.
Appendicitis initially causes intermittent periumbilical pain. Gradually the pain becomes constant in the right lower quadrant as peritoneal inflammation develops.
Exactly who does smoking affect baby Cigarette smoking produces a number of abnormalities in a mother’s body. First, cyanide (a strong poison) is produced from smoking. This by product from smoking goes directly to your tissue and to the tissue of your baby, producing hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in the individual cell. In addition to this, nicotine causes constriction of the boob vessels of your body, decreasing the amount of blood flowing through the placenta and adding to the hypoxia produced by the cyanide.
What are Liver Disease Symptoms Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a broad term describing any single number of diseases affecting the liver.Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, caused mainly by various viruses but also by some poisons (e.g. alcohol), autoimmunity (autoimmune hepatitis) or hereditary conditions. Diagnosis is done by checking levels of Alanine transaminase
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a spectrum in disease, associated with obesity and characterized as an abundance of fat in the liver; may lead to a hepatitis, i.e. steatohepatitis and/or cirrhosis.
Dementia stages symptoms Are you looking for dementia stages symptoms? Dementia is a serious loss of cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. It may be static, the result of a unique global brain injury, or progressive, resulting in long-term decline due to damage or disease in the body. Although dementia is far more common in the geriatric population, it can occur before the age of 65, in which case it is termed "early onset dementia".
Symptoms of dementia can be classified as either reversible or irreversible, depending upon the etiology of the disease. Less than 10% of cases of dementia are due to causes that may presently be reversed with treatment. Causes include many different specific disease processes, in the same way that symptoms of organ dysfunction such as shortness of breath, jaundice, or pain are attributable to many etiologies.
Basic facts on fats Fat, also called lipid, is a compound made by chemically bonding fatty acids to glycerol to form glycerides. When three fatty acids are hooked to glycerol, the fat compound is a triglyceride. Almost 95% of fat stored in the body is triglyceride, with the remaining 5% consisting of other glycerides and cholesterol. Scientific literature usually refers to triglycerides when it discusses fat. The fatty acids that make up triglycerides can be saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated.
Chemically, fats are chains of carbon atoms strung together with hydrogen atoms. If it is a saturated fat, the carbon chain carries all the hydrogen atoms it can . If it is unsaturated, there is room in the carbon chain for more hydrogen. If the chain is monounsaturated, there os room for two hydrogen atoms. If it is polyunsaturated, there is room for four hydrogen atoms. If it is highly polyunsaturated, there is room for many more hydrogen atoms.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder Narcissistic personality disorder are self centeredness and inflated self esteem, both beginning by early adulthood. Individual with the disorder typically overestimate their abilities, feel superior to others and demand administration they invariably expect special treatment.
Safflower Oil Nutrition Value and Information Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual. It is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds. Plants are 30 to 150 cm tall with globular flower heads having yellow, orange or red flowers. Each branch will usually have from one to five flower heads containing 15 to 20 seeds per head. Safflower is native to arid environments having seasonal rain. It grows a deep taproot which enables it to thrive in such environments.