In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Tinnitus Treatment Homeopathic Tinnitus is the perception of sound within the human ear in the absence of corresponding external sound.
Tinnitus is not a disease, but a symptom that can result from a wide range of underlying causes: abnormally loud sounds in the ear canal for even the briefest period (but usually with some duration), ear infections, foreign objects in the ear, nasal allergies that prevent (or induce) fluid drain, or wax build-up. Withdrawal from a benzodiazepine addiction may cause tinnitus as well. In-ear headphones, whose sound enters directly into the ear canal without any opportunity to be deflected or absorbed elsewhere, is a common cause of tinnitus when volume is set beyond moderate levels.
Best countries for Plastic Surgery Are you looking for Best countries for plastic surgery?
Cosmetic plastic surgery includes surgical and nonsurgical procedures that reshape normal structures of the body in order to improve appearance and self-esteem. Healthy individuals with a positive outlook and realistic expectations are appropriate candidates for cosmetic procedures. Plastic surgery is a personal choice and should be done for yourself, not to fulfill someone else's desires or to try to fit an ideal image. Because it is elective, cosmetic surgery is usually not covered by health insurance.
Best osteopathic medicine schools in USA Osteopathic medicine is a branch of the medical profession in the United States. Osteopathic physicians, known as DOs, are licensed to practice medicine and surgery in all 50 states and are recognized in forty-seven other countries, including most Canadian provinces.
Frontier physician Andrew Taylor Still founded the profession as a radical rejection of the prevailing system of medical thought of the 19th century. Still's techniques relied heavily on the manipulation of joints and bones to diagnose and treat illness, and he called his practices "osteopathy". By the middle of the 20th century, the profession had moved closer to mainstream medicine, adopting modern public health and biomedical principles. American "osteopaths" became "osteopathic physicians", gradually achieving full practice rights as medical doctors in all 50 states, including serving in the US armed forces as physicians.
HCG Diet Plan Phase 2 Are you looking for HCG Diet Plan Phase 2? HCG stands for Human Chronicle Gonadotropin hormone which helps lose weight. This is an effective approach used by most women today. HCG diet plan is a kind of program that promises to help you lose 1 pound daily with the help of a proper diet meal plan. On the other hand, a diet meal plan should be strictly followed to ensure an efficient result.
Panic attack symptoms women Are you looking for panic attack symptoms women? Panic attacks may be symptoms of an anxiety disorder. These attacks are a serious health problem in the U.S. At least 20% of adult Americans, or about 60 million people, will suffer from panic attacks at some point in their lives. About 1.7% of adult Americans, or about 3 million people, will have full-blown panic disorder at some time in their lives, twice as often for women than men. The peak age at which people have their first panic attack (onset) is 15-19 years. Another fact about panic is that this symptom is strikingly different from other types of anxiety; panic attacks are so very sudden and often unexpected, appear to be unprovoked, and are often disabling.
Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms Multiple sclerosis is characterized by recurrent or chronically progressive neurologic dysfunction caused by lesions in the CNS. The CNS lesions are characterized by multiple areas of demyelination in the CNS. The brain, optic nerves, and spinal cord may be affected.
Symptoms of UTI (Urinary Tract Infections) in Women Pregnancy causes numerous changes in the woman’s body. Hormonal and mechanical changes increase the risk of urinary stasis and vesicoureteral reflux. These changes, along with an already short urethra (approximately 3-4 cm in females) and difficulty with hygiene due to a distended pregnant belly, increase the frequency of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pregnant women. Indeed, UTIs are among the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy.
Talking with Your Doctor about Cancer Diagnosis Anytime there is suspicion of cancer, the person involved is likely to react with great anxiety, fear, and anger. Emotional distress is sometimes so intense that the person involved is unable to severe as his or he own best advocate in making critical health-care decisions. If you find it difficult to know what to ask your doctor on a routine exam, imagine how hard it would be to discuss life or death options for yourself or loved one. Having a list of important questions to ask when you appear at the doctor’s office may help tremendously. Remember, your health-care provider should be your partner in making the best decisions for you. By actively challenging, questioning, and letting the physician know your wishes, difficult decisions may become easier.
Causes of Asthma and Diet for Treatment Asthma is a disease that affects the bronchial tubes leading to our
lungs, resulting in periods of wheezing and shortness of breath. Not only has
the number of asthma sufferers escalated worldwide, but recent research has
indicated that more than 10% of South Africans are affected and that it is
definitely the most common of the chronic childhood illnesses. Pollution from
traffic fumes is without doubt a contributing factor, as during school holidays
incidences of attacks are reduced as there is less traffic.
Other atmospheric pollutants such as pollen, cigarette smoke and car exhaust
fumes can all be triggers. The incidence of occupational asthma is also high in
this country, caused by contact with airborne particles e.g. flour, soap powder
and paint. Even stressful situations and chronic exhaustion can trigger an
attack as can eating foods to which you have a sensitivity (such as sulphur
dioxide, used as a preservative in many dried fruit). You can also suffer
exercise-induced asthma. People who take paracetamol every day are twice as
likely to suffer asthma, and if you take it twice weekly you are 80% more likely
to be affected.
Mononucleosis symptoms children Are you looking for mononucleosis symptoms children? Infectious mononucleosis (IM; also known as EBV infectious mononucleosis or glandular fever or Pfeiffer's disease or Filatov's disease and sometimes colloquially as the kissing disease from its oral transmission or simply as mono in North America and as glandular fever in other English-speaking countries) is an infectious, widespread viral disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), one type of herpes virus, to which more than 90% of adults have been exposed. Occasionally, the symptoms can recur at a later period. Most people are exposed to the virus as children, when the disease produces no noticeable symptoms or only flu-like symptoms. In developing countries, people are exposed to the virus in early childhood more often than in developed countries. As a result, the disease in its observable form is more common in developed countries. It is most common among adolescents and young adults.
Medical abbreviations list Are you looking for medical abbreviations list?
Abbreviations are used very frequently in medicine. They boost efficiency as long as they are used intelligently. The advantages of brevity should be weighed against the possibilities of crypticness (making the communication harder for others to understand) and ambiguity (having more than one possible interpretation). Certain medical abbreviations are avoided to prevent mistakes, according to best practices (and in some cases regulatory requirements); these are flagged in the list of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions.
Infantile Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Skin eruptions which my occur at any time in life but which usually are found in infants and children may be aczema. The condition at first appears on the face and on the back of the wrists. Later in childhood it may be found in the bends of the elbows and the region back of the knees. At a result of scratching, these break open and oozing takes place. There is severe itchiness, and this constitutes the most disturbing feature of the disease. Allergic factors play a rather important role in this dermatitis. Most of these people have a family history allergy. They may present other allergic manisfestations, such as hay fever or asthma. Indeed, in some instances it is realized that the infant or child cannot tolerate certain foods or sensitive to certain substances in his environment.