In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Glossitis Symptoms and Treatment Glossitis is an acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) inflammation of the tongue. It may exist either as a primary disease or as a symptom of another disease or disorder.
The causes of glossitis can be either local or systemic (affecting the entire body). Local causes include immediate irritants, such as jagged or broken teeth, badly fitting dentures, poor oral hygiene habits, biting of the tongue (such as during convulsions), and external irritants, such as alcohol, tobacco, hot or spicy food, and even mouthwashes, toothpastes, and breath fresheners. Local infections, burns, and injuries may also produce symptoms of glossitis. Systemic causes may include certain vitamin deficiencies (especially vitamin B deficiencies, such as pellagra), anemia, syphilis, generalized skin diseases.
Glaucoma Treatment Guidelines Are you looking for glaucoma treatment guidelines? Glaucoma is an eye disorder in which the optic nerve suffers damage, permanently damaging vision in the affected eye(s) and progressing to complete blindness if untreated. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye (aqueous humour). The term 'ocular hypertension' is used for cases having constantly raised intraocular pressure (IOP) without any associated optic nerve damage. Conversely, the term 'normal' or 'low tension glaucoma' is suggested for the typical visual field defects when associated with a normal or low IOP.
What is Best Vitamin D Supplement Are you looking for Best Vitamin D Supplement? Vitamin D is found in many dietary sources such as fish, eggs, fortified milk, and cod liver oil. The sun also contributes significantly to the daily production of vitamin D, and as little as 10 minutes of exposure is thought to be enough to prevent deficiencies. The term "vitamin D" refers to several different forms of this vitamin. Two forms are important in humans: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Vitamin D2 is synthesized by plants. Vitamin D3 is synthesized by humans in the skin when it is exposed to ultraviolet-B (UVB) rays from sunlight. Foods may be fortified with vitamin D2 or D3.
Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Are you looking for chemotherapy for breast cancer? here is some article about chemotherapy for breast cancer.
The initial management of the breast cancer patient consists of assigning a clinical stage based on examination. The stage may be altered once the final pathology of the tumor has been determined. Staging of breast cancer is based on the TNM staging system.
Cyclosporin As we move on, drugs like CellCept and Prograf are replacing cyclosporin, but cyclosporin can take a normal person and give him tophaceous gout in about 24 months. Because it is a causer of renal insufficiency it also inhibits the secretion of uric acid by the kidney and resorption from uric acids, so it is a three-fold toxin in terms of developing gout in patients. It can develop raging tophaceous gout, and one of the problems was is that most patients with renal and heart transplant were on drugs such as Imuran and Cyclosporin, and Allopurinol interact with one another. You have a real difficult time of using Allopurinol on a patient and Azathioprine because of drug interactions and toxicities. These individuals are difficult to treat. Rapid in onset and have severe tophaceous gout.
Bladder cancer Symptoms and Treatment Here is som stuff about Bladder cancer sign and Symptoms and bladder cancer treatment. The etiology of bladder cancer is not well understood. Like most other malignancies, it is an environmental cancer. About 50% of bladder cancers can be accounted for on the basis of cigarette smoking. There is a dose-response relationship between the amount of cigarettes smoked and the likelihood of developing bladder cancer.
Anxiety Treatment Guide Discontinue caffeinated beverages and avoid excess alcohol. Daily exercise and adequate sleep (with the use of medication if necessary) should be advised.
Somatoform Disorders Symptoms and Classification Somatization is defined as the transference of mental experiences and sense into bodily symptoms. Somatzations disorder is characterized by presence of recurrent and multiple, frequently changing somatic complaints of several years duration, for which medical attention has been sought, but these apparently are not due to any physical disorder.
Somatoform disorders are characterized by physical symptoms suggesting medical disease but without demonstrable organic pathology or known pathophysiological mechanism to account for them. They are classified as mental disorders because there is either evidence or strong presumption that physiological factors are the major cause of symptoms or not understandable by existing laboratory procedures. Three central features of somatoform disorders are as follows:
Early Onset Dementia Symptoms Are you looking for early onset dementia symptoms? Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) or Early onset Familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD) is an uncommon form of Alzheimer's disease that usually strikes earlier in life, defined as before the age of 65 (usually between 50 and 65 years of age, but can be as early as 15) and is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, identified by genetics and other characteristics such as the age of onset. It accounts for approximately half the cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Familial AD requires the patient to have at least one first degree relative with a history of AD. Non-familial cases of AD are referred to as "sporadic" AD, where genetic risk factors are minor or unclear.
E Coli Symptoms There are many conditions with symptoms similar to those of E. coli infection. Diagnosis of E. coli infection can be complicated by the fact that most bacterial infections that cause diarrhea are accompanied by a high fever. If you have no fever or only a mild fever, your doctor may suspect that something other than bacteria is causing your symptoms.
Ephedra diet pills side effects and review Are you looking for Ephedra diet pills side effect and review? Many over-the-counter diet pill manufacturers say their product will help you see miraculous weight loss -- like losing up to 30 pounds in 30 days -- without diet or exercise. Their claims sound too good to be true, and most of them are.
A few pills, especially the newer prescription varieties (such as Meridia and Xenical), have been shown in clinical studies to help dieters shed a few pounds. But the majority of the ads you see on the Internet and TV are for products that are unregulated, untested and unproven.
Dementia Symptoms, Classification and Stages Dementia is defined as syndrome of acquired persistent intellectual impairment with compromised function in multiple spheres of mental activity, such as memory, language, visuospatial skill, emotion or personality and cognition.
Dementia can be classified as either primary or secondary.
Progeria Information and Facts Are you looking for progeria information and facts? here is some information about progeria.
Progeria is an extremely rare genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. The word Progeria comes from the Greek words "pro" means "before" and "géras" means "old age". The disorder has very low incidences and occurs in an estimated 1 per 8 million live births. Those born with progeria typically live to their mid teens and early twenties. It is a genetic condition that occurs as a new mutation (de novo), and is not inherited. Although the term progeria applies strictly speaking to all diseases characterized by premature aging symptoms, and is often used as such, it is often applied specifically in reference to Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome.