In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Cyclosporin As we move on, drugs like CellCept and Prograf are replacing cyclosporin, but cyclosporin can take a normal person and give him tophaceous gout in about 24 months. Because it is a causer of renal insufficiency it also inhibits the secretion of uric acid by the kidney and resorption from uric acids, so it is a three-fold toxin in terms of developing gout in patients. It can develop raging tophaceous gout, and one of the problems was is that most patients with renal and heart transplant were on drugs such as Imuran and Cyclosporin, and Allopurinol interact with one another. You have a real difficult time of using Allopurinol on a patient and Azathioprine because of drug interactions and toxicities. These individuals are difficult to treat. Rapid in onset and have severe tophaceous gout.
Pancreatitis Symptoms and Treatment Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that can occur in two very different forms. Acute pancreatitis is sudden while chronic pancreatitis "is characterized by recurring or persistent abdominal pain with or without steatorrhea or diabetes mellitus.
Infertility information for women Most traditional-age college students are interested in preventing pregnancy. However, increasing numbers of other people are trying to do just the opposite: they are trying to become pregnant. It is estimated that about one in six couples has a problem with infertility. The couples wish to become pregnant but are unable to do so.
How to Lose Weight Fast for Teenage Girl without exercise They told him of a party or some event a few weeks in advance and need to lose a few pounds?
Or maybe going to go on holiday and want to look spectacular in the photos.
Fortunately there are some tricks to lose those few extra pounds in no time.
Sciatica Treatment Exercises Guide and Image Sciatica differs from other types of back problems in the way the pain is felt. Sciatica pain can be a dull ache felt in the buttocks or a shooting pain that radiates down the leg. Sciatica symptoms can be numbness or 'pins and needles' and is commonly felt in the foot.
Sciatica back pain is located in the lower back but is usually less severe than other accompanying sciatica pain. There are several sciatica treatment options which can be used to give pain relief and can range from exercises to surgery.
Staying Fit during Pregnancy Like many other attitudes, our thinking on fitness during pregnancy has changed in recent years. No longer is a pregnant woman treated as fragile. A woman needs to be quite careful when carrying a baby, but these days a doctor is more likely to advise against a sedentary lifestyle for a healthy pregnant woman. Exercise during pregnancy can increase a womanís muscle strength, making delivery of the baby easier and faster. Exercise can also help control her weight, making it easier to get back to normal weight after delivery. The baby may benefit from the motherís exercise program as well.
Heat Stroke Long Term Effects Are you looking for heat stroke long term effects? here is some good article about heat stroke long term effects.
Heat stroke is a form of hyperthermia, an abnormally elevated body temperature with accompanying physical symptoms including changes in the nervous system function. Unlike heat cramps and heat exhaustion, two other forms of hyperthermia that are less severe, heat stroke is a true medical emergency that is often fatal if not properly and promptly treated.
Bladder cancer Symptoms and Treatment Here is som stuff about Bladder cancer sign and Symptoms and bladder cancer treatment. The etiology of bladder cancer is not well understood. Like most other malignancies, it is an environmental cancer. About 50% of bladder cancers can be accounted for on the basis of cigarette smoking. There is a dose-response relationship between the amount of cigarettes smoked and the likelihood of developing bladder cancer.
Red Blood Cell Indices The red cell indices give a valuable specific overview of anaemias (low RBC / Hb) and polycythaemias
(high RBC / Hb) whilst in parallel being able to part differentiate alcohol use, kidney problems, liver
problems, sickle cell and thalassemia
Red Blood Cell Number
The red blood cells or erythrocytes primarily transport oxygen and some nutrients to organs and tissues.
Hence the symptoms of lack of breath, dizziness and tiredness when these cells are low in number. The
process of creating RBCs is called erythropoiesis and this is induced by reduced oxygen (hypoxia) supply
to the kidneys which causes the release of the hormone erythropoietin (EPO). The RBC
will last around 12 weeks or 120 days; this has an advantage and a disadvantage.
It is a great long term marker but will take longer than most tests to see if
the intervention is correct.
Psoriasis Treatment Guidelines and Pictures Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells. Psoriasis is not contagious. There are five types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular and erythrodermic. The most common form, plaque psoriasis, is commonly seen as red and white hues of scaly patches appearing on the top first layer of the epidermis (skin). Some patients, though, have no dermatological symptoms. Here is some guidelines for Psoriasis Treatment
Heartburn symptoms in pregnancy Are you looki ng for heartburn symptoms in pregnancy? Heartburn is a burning sensation in your chest, just behind your breastbone. Heartburn pain is often worse when lying down or bending over.
Occasional heartburn is common and no cause for alarm. Most people can manage the discomfort of heartburn on their own with lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medications.
Common Ankle Problems The primary care physician will often be the first to evaluate common foot and ankle problems. The patient's complaints will range from acute traumatic injuries to chronic conditions, which have progressed in severity.
The recognition of local and systemic factors that contribute to the patient's condition in conjunction with a thorough history and physical examination will direct the initial plan of management, the use of further diagnostic testing and the necessity of an Orthopaedic referral.