In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Heart Attack Treatment Plans The treatment of a heart attack varies somewhat from case to case. The first rule, however, is to get the person to a hospital as soon as possible. Almost one-third of people who have a heart attack die before reaching the hospital. Of those who do get to a hospital, the vast majority will recover.
Complete cardiac arrest (meaning that the heart stops beating) can occur at any time during a heart attack. Even if cardiac arrest occurs, the patient has a good chance of survival if cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is started within four minutes of the arrest. CPR is a simple technique using mouth-to-mouth ventilation and chest compressions to pump oxygenated blood to the brain even though the victim's heart is not beating. Although CPR is a simple technique to learn, it cannot be learned from a book. CPR courses are taught by local chapters of the American Heart Association and American Red Cross. If everyone were trained in CPR, an estimated 100,000 lives would be saved each year in the United States alone.
Venereal Warts Symptoms and Treatment Venereal warts (also known as genital warts or condylomas) are caused by a small group of viruses known as human papilloma viruses (HPV). A person becomes infected when an HPV penetrates the skin and mucous membranes of the genitals or anus through sexual contact.
Open heart surgery Are you looking for about open heart surgery? Open heart surgery is a surgery in which the patient's heart is opened and surgery is performed on the internal structures of the heart. It was soon discovered by Dr. Wilfred G. Bigelow of the University of Toronto that the repair of intracardiac pathologies was better done with a bloodless and motionless environment, which means that the heart should be stopped and drained of blood. The first successful intracardiac correction of a congenital heart defect using hypothermia was performed by Dr. C. Walton Lillehei and Dr. F. John Lewis at the University of Minnesota on September 2, 1952. The following year, Soviet surgeon Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Vishnevskiy conducted the first cardiac surgery under local anesthesia.
What is Asthma Symptoms and Treatment What is asthma? what is asthma symptoms and how treatment for asthma?
When we talk about bronchial hyper-responsiveness, what we are saying is the following: If you take an individual without asthma and you challenge that individual with an asthma provoking substance, methacholine, you can see that no matter how much you increase methacholine, there is no major change in air flow. However, if the individual does have bronchial hyper-responsiveness, various degrees of methacholine can cause that air flow to drop 20%. And any drop will tell you the degree of responsiveness and it will then tell you the degree of severity of the disease. This is what we are talking about when we talk about bronchial hyper-responsiveness.
From the point of view of what is bronchial hyper-responsiveness, regardless of the stimulus which is often not an allergy, a number of cells have turned on, which causes a disruption in the bronchial mucosa. It is this disruption that makes the airway hyper-reactive. Well, as I mentioned, despite the fact that you have some homogeneity about inflammation and some homogeneity about bronchial hyperactivity, there is a tremendous heterogeneity in symptoms. Fifteen to 20% will cough. Or they can cough and or wheeze and they can be short of breath, associated with chest tightness. So the disease can reflect itself in many different ways.
Dementia Symptoms, Classification and Stages Dementia is defined as syndrome of acquired persistent intellectual impairment with compromised function in multiple spheres of mental activity, such as memory, language, visuospatial skill, emotion or personality and cognition.
Dementia can be classified as either primary or secondary.
Cerebral Palsy Definition Sign and Treatment Cerebral Palsy Definition
Cerebral palsy (CP) is an umbrella term encompassing a group of non-progressive, non-contagious motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various areas of body movement.
The Scope of Noise Exposure Noise is especially prevalent in the manufacturing industries. The US
Department of Labor has estimated that 19.3% of the workers in manufacturing and
utilities are exposed to daily average noise level of 90 dBA an above, 34.4% are
exposed to levels above 85 dBA, and 53.1% to levels above 80 dBA.
These estimates should be fairly typical of the percentage of workers exposed
to hazardous level of noise in other nations. The levels are likely to be
somewhat higher in less developed nations, where engineering controls are not
used as widely, and somewhat lower in nations with stronger noise control
programmes, such as Scandinavian Country and Germany.
Behavior Problems Among School aged Children Children's behavior is the result of the combination of temperament, inherited personality, and their experiences. It is possible to modify behavior by identifying and correcting adverse situations and by introducing appropriate interventions. Adverse situations may include child abuse or neglect, marital discord, or inappropriate class placement.
Identifying the Problems
The initial evaluation should determine what behaviors have been problematic and why, and it should determine under what circumstances the behaviors occur and how the parents deal with them. It is important to determine if there are other contributing factors at home or at school, such as family dysfunction or problems with peers.
More detailed information may be obtained through the use of behavior rating scales that are completed by parents and teachers. Behavior rating scales such as the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (for screening) or the Child Behavior Checklist (for more detailed information) will assess a broad range of behaviors.
Local Treatment of Allergic Dermatitis Most Persons who suffer with allergic dermatitis have accumulated numberless lotions, salves, ointments, and other local preparations. These have either been prescribed for them or suggested to them by their family or friends. For the most part, the effects of these long-continued local applications is to further irritate and traumatize the skin, so that in the end more harm than good is done. First take away all these various drugs and prescribe only such bland preparations as are least likely to injure the skin. These must be cautiously and carefully applied, observing their changing effect. Indeed, at times it is necessary to use the preparation of one area of the skin only, such as one arm or one leg, and observe the difference between the dermatitis on that are and on the area of the body where no preparation has been used.
Pulmonary Embolism Symptoms and Prevention Pulmonary embolism is a condition in which a part of blood clot in a vein breaks away and travels through the heart and into the pulmonary circulatory system. Here the vessels leading from the heart branch like a tree, gradually becoming smaller until finally they form capillaries, the smallest blood vessels. Depending on its size, the clot will at some point reach a vessel through which it cannot pass, and there will lodge itself. The clot disrupts the blood supply to the area supplied by that vessel. The larger the clot, the greater is the area of lung that loses its blood supply, and the more drastic the results to the patient.
Glossitis Symptoms and Treatment Glossitis is an acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) inflammation of the tongue. It may exist either as a primary disease or as a symptom of another disease or disorder.
The causes of glossitis can be either local or systemic (affecting the entire body). Local causes include immediate irritants, such as jagged or broken teeth, badly fitting dentures, poor oral hygiene habits, biting of the tongue (such as during convulsions), and external irritants, such as alcohol, tobacco, hot or spicy food, and even mouthwashes, toothpastes, and breath fresheners. Local infections, burns, and injuries may also produce symptoms of glossitis. Systemic causes may include certain vitamin deficiencies (especially vitamin B deficiencies, such as pellagra), anemia, syphilis, generalized skin diseases.
Hemroid Cure Treatment Are you looking for hemroid cure treatment? Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the anal canal. This common problem can be painful, but it’s usually not serious.What causes hemorrhoids?
Too much pressure on the veins in the pelvic and rectal area causes hemorrhoids.
Normally, tissue inside the anus fills with blood to help control bowel movements. If you strain to move stool, the increased pressure causes the veins in this tissue to swell and stretch. This can cause hemorrhoids.
Diarrhea or constipation also may lead to straining and can increase pressure on veins in the anal canal.
Menstrual Disorders (Amenorrhea) Among the health concerns of women that specifically belong to gynecology are menstrual disorders. Normally, the first menstrual period (menarche) occurs about age 12 or 13, or sometimes earlier or later. Periods are generally irregular for the first year or two, and then they tend to recur at intervals of 24 to 32 days. Each period begins about two weeks after ovulation, or the release of an egg cell (ovum) from the ovary—unless, of course, the ovum happens to be fertilized in the interval and pregnancy interrupts the whole process.
The menstrual flow, which lasts from three to seven days, is composed mainly of serum, mucus, and dead cells shed from the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. The loss of blood is minimal, usually from two to four ounces. The volume of flow, as well as the time schedule, tends to be fairly regular for most women. When one’s menstrual pattern varies noticeably from the expected pattern, and in the absence of pregnancy, it may be assign of a physical or emotional disorder.