In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Ketamine long term side effects Are you looking for ketamine long term side effects? Ketamine is a drug used in human and veterinary medicine. Its hydrochloride salt is sold as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA receptor antagonist. At high, fully anesthetic level doses, ketamine has also been found to bind to opioid μ receptors type 2 in cultured human neuroblastoma cells, however without agonist activity, and to sigma receptors in rats. Also, ketamine interacts with muscarinic receptors, descending monoaminergic pain pathways and voltage-gated calcium channels. Like other drugs of this class such as tiletamine and phencyclidine (PCP), it induces a state referred to as "dissociative anesthesia" and is used as a recreational drug.
Acute Abdomen Symptoms and Medications Clinical evaluation of abdominal pain
Onset and duration of the pain
The duration, acuity, and progression of pain should be assessed, and the exact location of maximal pain at onset and at present should be determined. The pain should be characterized as diffuse or localized. Time course of pain should be characterized as either constant, intermittent, decreasing, or increasing.
Acute exacerbation of longstanding pain suggests a complication of chronic disease such as peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease, or cancer. Sudden, intense pain often represents an intraabdominal catastrophe
(eg, ruptured aneurysm, mesenteric infarction, or intestinal perforation). Colicky abdominal pain of intestinal or ureteral obstruction tends to have a gradual onset.
Intermittent pain is associated with spasmodic increases in pressure within hollow organs.
Bowel ischemia initially causes diffuse crampy pain due to spasmodic contractions of the bowel. The pain becomes constant and more intense with bowel necrosis, causing pain out of proportion to physical findings. A history of intestinal angina can be elicited in half of patients.
Constant pain. Biliary colic from cystic or common bile duct obstruction usually is constant. Chronic pancreatitis causes constant pain. Constant pain also suggests parietal peritoneal inflammation, mucosal inflammatory conditions, or neoplasms.
Appendicitis initially causes intermittent periumbilical pain. Gradually the pain becomes constant in the right lower quadrant as peritoneal inflammation develops.
Characteristics of Anxiety Anxiety is an emotion and a subjective individual experience. It is an energy and therefore cannot be observed directly. A nurse infers that appetent is anxious based on certain behavior. The nurse needs to validate this with the patient. Also anxiety is an emotion without a specific object. It is provided by the unknown and precedes all new experiences such as entering school, starting a new job, or giving birth to a child.
The characteristic of anxiety differentiates it from fear. Fear is are individual ideation with specific source or object that the person can identify and describe. Fear involves the intellectual appraisal of a threatening stimulus, anxiety involves the emotional response to that appraisal. A person generally fears a set of circumstances that may occur at same point in the future. A fear is caused by physical or psychological exposure to a threatening situation. Fear produces anxiety. The two emotions are differentiated in speech, we speak of having a fear but of being anxious.
Menstrual Disorders (Amenorrhea) Among the health concerns of women that specifically belong to gynecology are menstrual disorders. Normally, the first menstrual period (menarche) occurs about age 12 or 13, or sometimes earlier or later. Periods are generally irregular for the first year or two, and then they tend to recur at intervals of 24 to 32 days. Each period begins about two weeks after ovulation, or the release of an egg cell (ovum) from the ovary—unless, of course, the ovum happens to be fertilized in the interval and pregnancy interrupts the whole process.
The menstrual flow, which lasts from three to seven days, is composed mainly of serum, mucus, and dead cells shed from the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. The loss of blood is minimal, usually from two to four ounces. The volume of flow, as well as the time schedule, tends to be fairly regular for most women. When one’s menstrual pattern varies noticeably from the expected pattern, and in the absence of pregnancy, it may be assign of a physical or emotional disorder.
Nasopharyngeal cancer symptoms and prognosis Are you looking for Nasopharyngeal cancer symptoms and prognosis? Nasopharyngeal cancer develops in the nasopharynx, an area in the back of the nose toward the base of skull. To understand nasopharyngeal cancer, it helps to know about the structure and function of the nasopharynx.
Food, Diet, and Asthma Patients with asthma often wonder whether the food they eat may make their symptoms worse. There is still much uncertainty about diet and asthma, and so confusing advise is often given.
Best cold medicine for adult What is the Best cold medicine for adult?
Cold medicine can be a help and a hindrance in our lives when we are sick. Though it won't cure your cold or flu, it can improve your symptoms. But it also can have side effects. Also, which one do you choose? It can be quite confusing. Here you will find out about different cold medicines, how they work, examples of different products in each category and what they are used for.
Plant based diet recipes and book Are you looking for plant based diet recipes and book? Perhaps you read Rip Esselstyn's The Engine 2 Diet or Jonathan Safran Foer’s Eating Animals and want to reduce your risk of lifestyle related diseases and avoid factory farms, or perhaps it's the recent U.N. study that said eating less meat is better for the planet - either way, there’s no doubt that reducing your meat intake and embracing a plant-based diet is one of the best things you can do for your health and the environment.
Genetics of Behavior Behavior Genetics is a “science that combines aspects of psychology, psychiatry, physiology and genetics,” the goal of which “is to clarify the role that genetic factors play in the determination of behavior.” The term genotype refers to the total set of genes present in an individual at the time of conception and coded in the DNA. The physical manifestations of a particular genotype ate designated by characteristics that specify a specific Phenotype. Examples of phenotypes include eye color, height, blood type, language and hair type. As evident by the examples presented, phenotypes are not only genetic but may also be acquired (i.e. influenced by the environment) or a combination of both. It is likely that most psychiatric disorders are the result of a combination of genetics and environment influences)
Investigators who study the etiological implications for psychiatric illness may explore several risk factors. Studies to determine if an illness is Familial compare the percentages of family members with the illness to those in the general population of in a control group of unrelated individuals. These studies estimate the prevalence of psychopathology among relatives and make predictions about the predisposition to an illness based on familial risk factors. Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression anorexia nervosa, panic disorder and alcoholism are examples of psychiatric illness in which familial tendencies have been indicated.
Retrograde uterus pregnancy and fertility What is retrograde uterus definition?A retroverted uterus (tilted uterus, tipped uterus) is a uterus that is tilted backwards instead of forwards. This is in contrast to the slightly "anteverted" uterus that most women have, which is tipped forward toward the bladder, with the anterior end slightly concave.
Between 1 in 3 and 1-in-5 women (depending on the source) has a retroverted uterus, which is tipped backwards towards the spine.
Tuberculosis Symptoms and Treatment Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms. Because the body has difficulty fighting thus type of bacterium, it attempts to wall of the off the organisms within small nodules, called granulomas or tubercles, which contain both the bacteria and the tissue produced by the body in reaction to them.
Of all person who are infected by the tuberculosis bacteria, 80 percent will never experience the symptoms of the disease. Usually, the body is able to surround the offending bacteria with granulomas; the tuberculosis bacteria then lie dormant in the body, and active disease does not develop. However, because the body cannot kill the bacteria-only contain them-the infection can become active at a later time, of the when some other disease has weakened the body’s defenses.
Of the 20 percent of infected persons in whom an active case does develop, only half will become sick within three months of contracting the infection; the other half will suffer from the disease at some time in their lives, perhaps years later. Tuberculosis usually affects the lungs, but it can also involve other parts of the body, such as spine, the kidneys, the digestive tract, and the lining of the heart.
Enlarged Heart Treatment Enlarged heart Definition
Enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) isn't a disease, but rather a symptom of another condition.
Gluten intolerance symptoms in children Are you looking for gluten intolerance symptoms in children? Gluten is composed of the sticky storage proteins found in wheat. Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE) can range from mild inflammation of the mucosa of the small intestine to severe coeliac disease. The term gluten-sensitive is applicable when a probable diagnosis of GSE is made based on conditions such as dermatitis herpetiformis. However, GS may be used as the diagnosis in ambiguous situations when other conditions may be possible. For example, wheat allergies to gluten can result in anaphylaxis while others may be difficult to diagnose because of some of the cryptic inflammatory properties of wheat proteins. The term 'gluten sensitivity' is typically applied when diagnostic testing is not done because of prolonged gluten-free diet and/or refusal of gluten-challenge prior to biopsy. The gluten-sensitive designation may not be appropriate in all cases, as wheat allergies are often directed toward albumins or globulins of wheat, or the person may have a sensitivity to proteins commonly found with wheat products (e.g. fungal amylase or bread-yeast mannins). Therefore diagnostic criteria are preferred. The relationship between gluten and these various sensitivities is complex. For gluten enteropathy, T-cell reactivity is almost entirely restricted to prolamin-glutelin/species within the grass tribe Triticeae, and especially α-gliadins of wheat. For a tiny minority of GSE, inflammatory responses may extend to cover oats. Gluten allergies may extend over wide taxa or may be specific to certain wheat proteins and allergies may include oats.