In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Schistosomiasis Symptoms and Treatment A worm of a different sort—the trematode, a flatworm of the class Trematoda, which includes the flukes—is responsible for schistosomiasis. This disease occurs in various forms if Africa, Asia, South America, and the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico. About 200 million people infected with schistosomiasis, also called bilharziasis.
Life Cycle of the Fluke Parasite
The process of infection by one kind of fluke involves free swimming larvae that penetrate the skin of a human who has entered waters containing the organism. The larvae follow the human bloodstream to the liver, where they develop into adult worms. The adult worms then move into the intestine or urinary bladder and are excreted with the urine or feces of the host. If they find their way to fresh water, the eggs hatch and the released organisms find their way to the body of a snail. Inside the snail they multiply into thousands of new larvae over a period of one or two months, after which they return to the water and invade the skin of another human. In this manner the fluke worm continues its life cycle, infecting more humans who venture into the contaminated waters.
Drug Classification Drugs are commonly classified according to the physiological effect they have. Categories include stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, narcotics, and inhalants. Two other types are also important. First, designer drugs are manufactured to mimic the effects if drugs found in the previously mentioned categories. Designer drugs usually are not illegal because their chemical formula has been altered from the original drug. The other drug, marijuana, is difficult to classify but is usually included as a hallucinogen. Depending on the dose, marijuana can mimic a variety of substances found in other categories.
Dysthymic Disorder Symptoms and Treatments Depressed mood is present for most of the day, for more days than it is not present, and depression has been present for at least two years.
Presence of at least two of the following:
Poor appetite or overeating.
Insomnia or hypersomnia.
Low energy or fatigue.
Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions.
Over the two year period, the patient has never been without symptoms for more than two months consecutively.
No major depressive episode has occurred during the first two years of the disturbance.
No manic, hypomanic or mixed episode, or evidence of cyclothymia is present.
Symptoms do not occur with a chronic psychotic disorder.
Symptoms are not due to substance use or a general medical condition.
Symptoms cause significant social or occupational dysfunction or marked subjective distress.
Heat Stroke Long Term Effects Are you looking for heat stroke long term effects? here is some good article about heat stroke long term effects.
Heat stroke is a form of hyperthermia, an abnormally elevated body temperature with accompanying physical symptoms including changes in the nervous system function. Unlike heat cramps and heat exhaustion, two other forms of hyperthermia that are less severe, heat stroke is a true medical emergency that is often fatal if not properly and promptly treated.
What is Champix and the Side Effects When Karen McGhee woke up in a hospital bed and saw her teenage daughter looking anxiously at her, she was completely flummoxed.
"My arm was bandaged and the left side of my mouth and neck felt numb, as if I had been to the dentist - but I had no idea why I was in hospital," says the 38-year-old.
In fact, the mother-of-three from Greenock, Scotland, had developed severe depression and tried to hang herself after taking Champix - a pill designed to help reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms and stop cravings.
Causes of muscular dystrophy Muscular dystrophy (abbreviated MD) refers to a group of hereditary and non-hereditary, muscle diseases that weakens the musculoskeletal system and hampers locomotion. Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue. What are causes of muscular dystrophy?
In the 1860s, descriptions of boys who grew progressively weaker, lost the ability to walk, and died at an early age became more prominent in medical journals. In the following decade, French neurologist Guillaume Duchenne gave a comprehensive account of 13 boys with the most common and severe form of the disease (which now carries his name — Duchenne muscular dystrophy).
HCG Diet Plan Phase 1 Are you looking for HCG Diet Plan Phase 1? The Homeopathic HCG diet plan does not need to be mixed. Drops are taken 3 times per day, typically preceding breakfast, lunch and dinner. Do not eat or drink anything 15 minutes before or after taking HCG drops. Using the oral syringe provided, drop .38 ml of HCG under your tongue and hold for at least 15 seconds before swallowing. Keep dropper very clean. You can carry your HCG drops and HCG diet plan with you throughout the day, but it's best to keep it in a cool, dark place. If you're at home, the fridge is best. Note: taking more than the recommended dosage from the HCG diet plan could result in depleting of drops before the 26 or 40 days are finished.
Guidelines For Exercise In the Heat Guidelines for exercising in heat and humidity have been developed for road races, but these can be applied to any strenuous physical activity performed outdoors during warm weather. Ambient conditions are considered safe when the temperature is below 70º F and the humidity is below 60%. People who are sensitive to heat and humidity should reconsider exercising when the temperature is greater than 80ºF or the humidity is more than 60%. People who are in these conditions, but they should be aware of the potential hazards and take precautions to prevent heat illness.
The keys to exercising without incident in hot weather are to acclimate to the heat and maintain the body's normal fluid level. The major consequence of dehydration (excessive fluid loss) is a reduction in blood volume. This results in sluggish circulation that decrease the delivery of oxygen to the exercising muscles. Second, lowered blood volume results in less blood that can be sent to the skin to remove the heat generated by exercise. If too much of the blood temperature will rise, leading to to heat-stress illness. Hat illness is a serious problem that can be avoided by following a few guidelines deigned to preserve the body's fluid level.
Chrons disease symptoms in children Are you looking for chrons disease symptoms in children? Crohn's disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is at its worst), vomiting, or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, and lack of concentration.
Aneurysm Symptoms and Treatment An aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel, usually an artery, due to a weakness in the vessel wall, particularly in the elastic, muscular middle layer of the artery wall. An artery has three layers: the intima, which is the smooth inner layer; the media, or middle layer; and the adventitia, which is the tough outer layer. A true aneurysm involves all three layers, whereas a false aneurysm is a disruption or clot in one or two of the layers, causing a bulge in the vessel. A dissecting aneurysm occurs when blood separates the layers, thereby creating an extra channel, sometimes extending the full length of the artery, through which blood flow is diverted from the organs or tissues served by the blood vessel. This dangerous condition can develop in a matter of hours a day.
The main danger of most untreated aneurysm is that they may rupture, causing death due to loss of blood. Even if death does not occur, blood loss may so decrease blood flow to the heart that it cannot work properly.
Best cold medicine for adult What is the Best cold medicine for adult?
Cold medicine can be a help and a hindrance in our lives when we are sick. Though it won't cure your cold or flu, it can improve your symptoms. But it also can have side effects. Also, which one do you choose? It can be quite confusing. Here you will find out about different cold medicines, how they work, examples of different products in each category and what they are used for.
Lasik Eye Surgery Cost and Prices Are you looking how much Lasik Eye Surgery Cost?
There have always been concerns about LASIK because of its tendency to induce higher-order aberrations. The advancement of the LASIK technology has helped reduce the risk of clinically significant visual impairment after surgery. There is a correlation between pupil size and aberrations. Effectively, the larger the pupil size, the greater the risk of aberrations. This correlation is the result of the irregularity between the untouched part of the cornea and the reshaped part. Daytime post-lasik vision is optimal, since the pupil is smaller than the LASIK flap. But at night, the pupil may expand such that light passes through the edge of the LASIK flap into the pupil which gives rise to many aberrations, including the appearance of halos surrounding sources of light. There are other currently unknown factors in addition to pupil size that also may lead to higher order aberrations