In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Best Baby Formula Brand Do you looking for best baby formula brand? here is some good article about best baby formula.
When you‚Äôre deciding which formula is right for your baby, you will need to take several factors into consideration. Think about her health and dietary needs, her age, and the cost and preparation time of different formula milks. Our guide to formula milks will help you to choose the right type for your baby.
What are Water Functions Next to air, water is the substances most necessary for survival. Most everything in the body occurs in a water medium. Although people can live without vitamins and minerals for extended periods, death result within a few day without water.
Water makes up about 60% of the body's weight. Every cell in the body is bathed in water of the exact composition that is best for it. Even tissues that are not thought of as "watery" contain large amounts of water. Fo example, water makes up about 75% of brain and muscle tissues; bone tissue and fat tissue are about 20% water. As a lee the bodies of women. Men have more muscle tissue, and muscle tissue holds more water that fat tissue, which is more prominent in the bodies of women.
Furosemide Side Effects and Dosage Furosemide is a loop diuretic (water pill) that prevents your body from absorbing too much salt, allowing the salt to instead be passed in your urine. Furosemide treats fluid retention in people with congestive heart failure, liver disease, or a kidney disorder such as nephrotic syndrome. This medication is also used to treat high blood pressure. Here is some stuff about Furosemide Side Effects and Dosage.
Menopause Definition, Age and Treatment Guidelines Elizabeth K. Stanford, MD
We all know what happens at a certain age to women. It is genetically determined that they stop making estrogen in their ovaries. Thatís why fat people are overweight. Ladies are less likely to get hot flushes and less likely to get hip fractures, and more likely to get endometrial cancer. The follicles stop developing in the gonad at a certain age that is genetically predetermined. And actually before that phase happens, to end ovulation and menstrual cycle regularity and sometimes some psychologic symptoms. Of course the hot flush which occurs in about ĺ of women and it occurs without an aura. It just happens and frequently wakens them from sleep and is very disturbing. So these are the early symptoms of estrogen deficiency. A few years later the target tissues start to atrophy; the vagina and the urethra and the bladder, which are urologically grafted to the urogenital sinus. And since estrogen stimulates collagen synthesis, there is atrophy in the dermis of the skin. Youíve all noticed those vertical lines in the upper lip of women. Thatís a sign of not making enough collagen or dermis.
When estrogen deficiency begins, there is an increased rate of bone resorption, which in about half of white women leads to osteoporosis and if they live long enough then they may develop fractures from this. These fractures start appearing about age 60. There is also an acceleration of cardiovascular disease in women not taking estrogen, and estrogen will retard the acceleration of atherosclerosis. Of course these are the serious problems that are asymptomatic. The osteoporosis and the atherosclerosis. So we donít mention them until the event occurs. You all measure blood pressure and treat hypertension and you make a cholesterol to treat cardiovascular disease, and now there is a move afoot to measure bone mineral density in all white women and Asian women. And now found that even about 30% of blacks have osteoporosis, so this is being reimbursed by Medicare and this is something that you will be doing in the next few years.
Amyloidosis Prognosis and Treatment Amyloidosis results from the deposition of insoluble, fibrous amyloid proteins, nearly always in the extracellular spaces of organs and tissues. All amyloid proteins share a unique fibrillar ultrastructure. Amyloid fibrils can be deposited locally or may involve virtually every organ system of the body. Amyloid fibril deposition may have no apparent clinical consequences or may lead to severe pathophysiologic changes.
There are multiple clinically and biochemically distinct forms of amyloid that share a unique morphology and secondary structure; some are systemic and others are localized or organ-limited. Although the fibril precursors differ in their amino acid sequences, the polypeptide backbones of these protein precursors assume an identical secondary structure, the beta-pleated sheet conformation, and similar fibrillar morphologies that render them resistant to proteolysis. All amyloid deposits contain an identical nonfibrillar component, the pentraxin or serum amyloid P (SAP). The amyloidoses are classified according to the biochemical nature of the fibril-forming protein. Systemic amyloidoses include biochemically distinct forms that are neoplastic, inflammatory, genetic, or iatrogenic in origin, while localized or organ-limited amyloidoses are associated with aging and diabetes and occur in isolated organs, often endocrine, without evidence of systemic involvement.
What is systolic blood pressure definition What is systolic blood pressure definition? Systolic blood pressure is the amount of pressure that blood exerts on vessels while the heart is beating. In a blood pressure reading (such as 120/80), it is the number on the top. If the top and bottom blood pressures are both too high, a person is said to have high blood pressure. If only the top number is higher than 140, the person has a condition called isolated systolic hypertension.
Women and Cardiovascular Disease Heart disease is the number one killer of both men and women. In the United States, heart attacks kill about 240,000 women a year; stroke takes another 88,000 womenís lives. That compares with about 43,000 women who die annually from breast cancer. In fact, nearly twice as many women die of CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) than all cancers combined.
While men do have more heart attacks and have them earlier in life, women have a much lower chance of surviving a heart attack. We understand the mechanism that cause CVD in men from years of male-oriented research. But only within the last decade have we moved toward a better understanding of how CVD manifests itself in women.
Infantile Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Skin eruptions which my occur at any time in life but which usually are found in infants and children may be aczema. The condition at first appears on the face and on the back of the wrists. Later in childhood it may be found in the bends of the elbows and the region back of the knees. At a result of scratching, these break open and oozing takes place. There is severe itchiness, and this constitutes the most disturbing feature of the disease. Allergic factors play a rather important role in this dermatitis. Most of these people have a family history allergy. They may present other allergic manisfestations, such as hay fever or asthma. Indeed, in some instances it is realized that the infant or child cannot tolerate certain foods or sensitive to certain substances in his environment.
Allergic Headache Certain types of headache are allergic in origin. In these cases patients develop headaches of variable severity when exposed to substances to which they are allergic. These may be food or inhalants. The symptoms vary with the person. As a rule, the pain is deep and sometimes throbbing, or it may acquire the characteristics of so-called sick headache or migraine. Not all instances of migraine are allergic in nature. When one realizes that chronic headache interfere with the patient's happiness and productivity, a serious effort must be made in each case to discover it cause. It must by no means assumed that every case of headache is allergic, because most frequently the cause of headache is something other than allergy. In the case of chronic recurrent headache one must always rule out some serious systemic condition like kidney disease, anemia, infection, or brain
HCG diet shots Are you looking for HCG diet shots? Effect of human chorionic gonadotrophin on weight loss, hunger, and feeling of well-beingW. L. Asher, M.D.1 and Harold W. Harper, M.D.11.From the American Society of Bariatric Physicians Research Council, 333 West Hampden Avenue, Englewood, Colorado 80110.
Twenty female patients on 500 to 550 kcal diets receiving daily injections of 125 IU of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) were compared with 20 female patients on 500 to 550 kcal diets receiving placebo injections. Patients in both groups were instructed to return for daily injections 6 days each week for a total of 36 injections (unless desired weight was achieved prior to this).
Bones and Muscles The bones of the human body, securely attached together by ligaments, form the skeleton or framework of the body. The body tissue, organs, and systems are located either inside the cavities formed by the skeleton or around it. The skeleton is the framework that holds everything in place. Also it source of attachment for many of the organs.
Body Odor Causes The primary function of the eccrine sweat glands is to assist in the maintenance of body temperature in response to heat exposure or exercise. Hyperhidrosis may be defined as sweating beyond what is necessary to maintain thermal regulation. It may be primary (idiopathic, essential) or secondary to a number of diseases and prescribed drugs. Hyperhidrosis can be localized or generalized. Regardless of the type or cause of the hyperhidrosis, it is frequently socially embarrassing and occupationally disabling.
Symptoms of Heart Disease in Women Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among American women, is more lethal in women than men, and is less aggressively treated in women than in men. Perhaps most troubling is how little women understand about cardiac risk, their ability to control it, and consequently to improve their lifestyle and reduce heart disease. Education and behavior modification are solutions to improving mortality and morbidity from heart disease in the USA. As we move into the next century it will be key to teach women about their risks for the number one killer.