In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in coloration, usually of the iris but also of hair or skin. Heterochromia is a result of the relative excess or lack of melanin (a pigment). It may be inherited, or caused by genetic mosaicism, disease, or injury.
Heterochromia of the eye (heterochromia iridis or heterochromia iridum; the common wrong form "heterochromia iridium" is not correct Latin) is of two kinds. In complete heterochromia, one iris is a different color from the other. In partial heterochromia or sectoral heterochromia, part of one iris is a different color from its remainder.
Heterochromia Iridium Causes
This is another physical sign where a good observation can pay dividend at the beginning of the examination.
The heterochromia is usually best seen in a well-lit environment. There are many causes of heterochromia iridis,
however, if the heterochromia forms the main part of the examination (for example 'Look at this patient's eye and do
the necessary examination') the most likely case is siderosis bulbi. Remember that the abnormal eye can be the eye
with either the darker as in siderosis bulbi or the lighter iris for example congenital Horner's syndrome or Fuchs'
Most cases of heterochromia are hereditary, caused by a disease or syndrome, or due to an injury. Sometimes one eye may change color following certain diseases or injuries.
Specific causes of eye color changes include:
Foreign object in the eye
Glaucoma, or some medications used to treat it
Mild inflammation affecting only one eye
Heterochromia iridium (two different-colored eyes within a single individual) and heterochromia iridis (a variety of color within a single iris) are relatively rare in humans and result from increased or decreased pigmentation of the iris. Most cases are isolated and sporadic, conceivably resulting from an alteration in the expression of the above-mentioned genes (and those we have yet to find) within the cells of the entire iris or even a particular section. Other potential causes include trauma around the time of birth or later in life, congenital pigmented nevi or even medications such as those used in the treatment of glaucoma. There are a few well-known syndromes of which heterochromia iridis is a striking feature. Waardenburg syndrome type 1, an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PAX3 gene, is characterized by pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair and skin, as well as congenital sensorineural hearing loss. But two different eye colors tends to be an isolated finding, which adds to the seemingly endless and fascinating variation in humans' physical characteristics.
Leprosy Symptoms and Causes Leprosy or Hansen's disease (HD) is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Named after physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen, leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions are the primary external sign. Left untreated, leprosy can be progressive, causing permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs and eyes. Contrary to folklore, leprosy does not cause body parts to fall off, although they can become numb or diseased as a result of secondary infections; these occur as a result of the body's defenses being compromised by the primary disease. Secondary infections, in turn, can result in tissue loss causing fingers and toes to become shortened and deformed, as cartilage is absorbed into the body.
Breast Cancer Signs and Self Breast Examination Instructions
About 1 out 10 women will develop breast cancer at some time in her life. Although this oft-repeated ratio has frightened many women, it represents a woman’s lifetime risk. Thus, not until the age of 80 does a woman’s risk of breast cancer rise to 1 in 10. Here is the risk at earlier ages :
Age 50 : 1 in 50
Age 60 : 1 in 24
Age 70 : 1 in 14
Age 80 : 1 in 10
In 1995, approximately 182,000 women in the United States will have been diagnoses with breast cancer for the first time. About 46,000 women (and 240 men) will die, making breast cancer the second leading cause of cancer death for women.
Alcohol Treatment Centers Florida Are you looking for alcohol treatment centers florida? here is some list of alcohol treatment centers florida. Alcoholism is a treatable disease and many treatment programs and approaches are available to support alcoholics who have decided to get help, but no medical cure available.
Regardless of how someone is diagnosed as alcohol dependent or how they came to realize they have a serious drinking problem, the first step to treatment is a sincere desire to get help. Alcoholics who are pressured into treatment by social pressure or forced to quit by circumstances rarely succeed in the long run.
Ear Infection Treatment Adult and Antibiotics Are you looking for Ear Infection Treatment for Adult and what are Antibiotics for ear infection?
Ear infections occur when a cold, throat infection, or allergy attack causes fluid to become trapped in the middle ear. Mostly affecting children, symptoms include earaches and thick, yellow fluid coming from the ears. A small tube connects your ear to your throat. These two tubes are called eustachian tubes (say "yoo-STAY-shee-un"). A cold can cause this tube to swell. When the tube swells enough to become blocked, it can trap fluid inside your ear. This makes it a perfect place for germs to grow and cause an infection.
Local Treatment of Allergic Dermatitis Most Persons who suffer with allergic dermatitis have accumulated numberless lotions, salves, ointments, and other local preparations. These have either been prescribed for them or suggested to them by their family or friends. For the most part, the effects of these long-continued local applications is to further irritate and traumatize the skin, so that in the end more harm than good is done. First take away all these various drugs and prescribe only such bland preparations as are least likely to injure the skin. These must be cautiously and carefully applied, observing their changing effect. Indeed, at times it is necessary to use the preparation of one area of the skin only, such as one arm or one leg, and observe the difference between the dermatitis on that are and on the area of the body where no preparation has been used.
Molar Pregnancy Molar pregnancies, invasive molar pregnancies, and malignant molar pregnancies are growths that result from abnormal pregnancies referred to as trophoblastic disease. Doctors often use the term mole to describe some of these problems; this has nothing whatever to do with a mole on the surface of the skin. The term trophoblastic disease is derived from the name of the trophoblast cell, the cell that makes up the placenta.
Bipolar Disorder Symptoms Bipolar I disorder typically begins in the teenage years, the 20s, or the 30s. The first episode could be manic, depressive, or mixed. One common mode of onset is mild retarded depression, or hypersomnia, for a few weeks or months, which then switches into a manic episode.
Clozapine Side Effects Management Clozapine (sold as Clozaril, Azaleptin, Leponex, Fazaclo, Froidir; Denzapine, Zaponex in the UK; Klozapol in Poland, Clopine in Australia and New Zealand) is an antipsychotic medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia, and is also used off-label in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Wyatt. R and Chew. R (2005) tells us there are three pharmaceutical companies that market this drug at present: Novartis Pharmaceuticals (manufacturer), Mylan Laboratories and Ivax Pharmaceuticals (market generic clozapine). The first of the atypical antipsychotics to be developed, it was first introduced in Europe in 1971, but was voluntarily withdrawn by the manufacturer in 1975 after it was shown to cause agranulocytosis, a condition involving a dangerous decrease in the number of white blood cells, that led to death in some patients. In 1989, after studies demonstrated that it was more effective than any other antipsychotic for treating schizophrenia, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved clozapine's use but only for treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
Heat Stroke Treatment and Medication at Home Heat stroke may also be referred to as: heat contractions, sunstroke, heat exhaustion and heat fatigue. This health state is often life-threatening. This situation occurs when people exert or play in scorching, sticky places and their body liquids are lost during sweating, causing dehydration the body to swelter. Heat sickness may be observed as an array of illness involving the body’s failure to deal with heat. Here is some stuff about Heat Stroke Treatment at Home
Macrocytic Anemia Causes and Treatment Anemias that are associated with macrocytosis (a mean corpuscular volume of >100 fL) include those from liver disease, alcoholism, hypothyroidism, certain drug exposures, megaloblastic anemia, myelodysplasias, preleukemia, or those with marked reticulocytosis due to the larger size of the young erythrocytes.
Characteristics of Anxiety Anxiety is an emotion and a subjective individual experience. It is an energy and therefore cannot be observed directly. A nurse infers that appetent is anxious based on certain behavior. The nurse needs to validate this with the patient. Also anxiety is an emotion without a specific object. It is provided by the unknown and precedes all new experiences such as entering school, starting a new job, or giving birth to a child.
The characteristic of anxiety differentiates it from fear. Fear is are individual ideation with specific source or object that the person can identify and describe. Fear involves the intellectual appraisal of a threatening stimulus, anxiety involves the emotional response to that appraisal. A person generally fears a set of circumstances that may occur at same point in the future. A fear is caused by physical or psychological exposure to a threatening situation. Fear produces anxiety. The two emotions are differentiated in speech, we speak of having a fear but of being anxious.
Leishmaniasis Symptoms, Treatment and Types Leishmaniasis is similar to malaria in that disease organisms are protozoa transmitted to humans by an insect bite, but the insect in this case is the sandfly. There are several form that leishmaniasis can take. The kind considered most lethal, with a mortality rate of up to 95 percent of untreated adults, is known as kala-azar, a term derived from the Hindi language meaning “black disease.” Kala-azar also is known as black fever, dumdum fever, and visceral leishmaniasis. It occurs from China through Russia and India to North Africa, the Mediterranean countries of Europe, and in parts of Central and South America. Kala-azar has appeared in United-States in cases contracted overseas.