Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
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Inhalants Cause Allergy A large number of substances reach the body through breathing or inhalation. The fact that they are introduced through inhalation does not necessarily indicate that the symptoms will be only respiratory; for example, inhaled substances can produce hives, and conversely foods may cause asthma. Air-borne pollen and molds produce seasonal hay fever. house dust is a very important inhalant antigen. animal hairs are frequent offenders, and for this reason allergic patients should avoid contact with or exposure to animals regardless as to whether they are skin sensitive to their. Contact with horses, especially riding behind a horse, or using horse blankets or being in the company of people who wear riding habits may produce severe allergic symptoms.
Gluten Free Diet Plan Weight Loss A gluten-free diet is a diet that excludes foods containing gluten. Gluten is a protein found in wheat (including kamut and spelt), barley, rye, malts and triticale. It is used as a food additive in the form of a flavoring, stabilizing or thickening agent, often as "dextrin". A gluten-free diet is the only medically accepted treatment for celiac disease, the related condition dermatitis herpetiformis, and wheat allergy.
Drug Classification Drugs are commonly classified according to the physiological effect they have. Categories include stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, narcotics, and inhalants. Two other types are also important. First, designer drugs are manufactured to mimic the effects if drugs found in the previously mentioned categories. Designer drugs usually are not illegal because their chemical formula has been altered from the original drug. The other drug, marijuana, is difficult to classify but is usually included as a hallucinogen. Depending on the dose, marijuana can mimic a variety of substances found in other categories.
Migraine Headache Treatment and Medication Guidelines Sumatriptan
Sumatriptan (Imitrex) is available in three forms: subcutaneous injection,
nasal spray, and oral tablet. Injectable sumatriptan comes as a 6 mg dose for
use with an autoinjector. Subcutaneous sumatriptan is the most effective triptan.
It works extremely quickly with 50% headache response at 30 minutes, a one-hour
headache response of 77%, and more than 80% at two hours. Recurrence of migraine
within 24 hours after a headache response with injectable sumatriptan is 34-38%.
Recurrence with the spray and tablet is 35-40%.
Nasal spray sumatriptan. 20 mg is the optimal dose, with a two-hour headache
response of 64%. Almost 40% have headache response at 30 minutes. The spray
comes in a single-use device. When sniffed, it causes a terrible taste in the
back of the throat; therefore, patients should spray it once in one nostril and
not sniff in.
Smoking effects for reproduction of women In all of its dimensions the reproductive process is impaired by the use of tobacco, particularly cigarette smoking. Problems can be found in association with infertility, problem pregnancy, breastfeeding, and the health of the new born.
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Alcohol Treatment Medication Maintenance treatment
Twelve-step programs make
a significant contribution to recovery. Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the root of
Drugs for treatment of alcohol
inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase, the enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of
acetaldehyde to acetic acid. On ingesting alcohol, patients taking disulfiram
experience the disulfiram-ethanol reaction, an increase in the acetaldehyde
level that manifests as flushing of the skin, palpitations, decreased blood
pressure, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, blurred vision, and confusion.
Death has been reported. Common side effects include drowsiness, lethargy,
peripheral neuropathy, hepatotoxicity, and hypertension. The usual dose of
disulfiram is 250 to 500 mg daily.
Biophysical Assessment Definition Examples and Guidelines he heart rate test was more likely to be abnormal first, decreased breathing
activity next, decreased movement next and tone last. This exactly reflects
the model that I gave you at the beginning so that our clinical observation
of what goes wrong mirrors perfectly what was hypothesized in the model
to be the way in which things disappear.
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Approach fo Allergy There is little doubt that emotional factors have a profound effect upon an allergic condition. The reverse is also true, allergic disease affect the patient emotionally. A patient who suffers with a long-standing chronic condition like asthma, or a patient whose normal life is seriously interfered with during a good portion of the year because of hay fever, is bound to become nervous and upset. These patients develop emotional disturbances which in turn contribute to or aggravate their condition.
Adrenal Insufficiency Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Autoimmune adrenalitis is the most common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency. Adrenalitis caused by tuberculosis was once the most common cause. Autoimmune adrenalitis is sometimes accompanied by other autoimmune endocrine deficiencies, such as thyroid disease, diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, hypoparathyroidism, or ovarian failure (Table 14). Recently, AIDS and antiphospholipid syndrome have been cited as additional causes.
Iatrogenic tertiary adrenal insufficiency, a common secondary cause of adrenal insufficiency, results from suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function secondary to glucocorticoid administration. Secondary adrenal insufficiency may also result from pituitary or hypothalamic disease, as described earlier.
Facing Cancer While heart diseases mortality rates have declined steadily over the past 50 years, cancer mortality rates have increased consistently in the same period. Based on current rates, about 83 million-or one in three of us now living-will eventually develop cancer. Many factors have contributed to the rise in cancer mortality, but the increase in the incidence of the lung cancer is probably the most important reason. Despite these gloomy predictions, recent advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of many forms of cancer have reduced much of the fear and mystery that once surrounded this disease.