Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Cerebral palsy types, symptoms and treatment Cerebral palsy (CP) is a general term to describe various disorders of muscle control caused by a period of lack of oxygen to the brain.
Cerebral palsy Causes
Cerebral palsy is caused by brain or nerve damage that usually occurs before or around the time of birth. The damage may result when brain tissue becomes starved for oxygen for any reason. It may result from separation and bleeding of the placenta (the organ that anchors the fetus to the wall of the uterus and provides nourishment) in late pregnancy or form disorders caused by diabetes in the mother. It is characteristic of cerebral palsy that the neurologic problems are not progressive.
Kidney Stones Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Kidney stones are deposits of mineral or organic substances that form in the kidneys. When abnormally high levels of certain minerals, such as calcium, are in the urine, they may condense into hard masses, forming stones in the kidney or urinary tract. The stones may be as small as a tiny pebble or as large as a walnut.
Tuberculosis Symptoms and Treatment Tuberculosis is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis organisms. Because the body has difficulty fighting thus type of bacterium, it attempts to wall of the off the organisms within small nodules, called granulomas or tubercles, which contain both the bacteria and the tissue produced by the body in reaction to them.
Of all person who are infected by the tuberculosis bacteria, 80 percent will never experience the symptoms of the disease. Usually, the body is able to surround the offending bacteria with granulomas; the tuberculosis bacteria then lie dormant in the body, and active disease does not develop. However, because the body cannot kill the bacteria-only contain them-the infection can become active at a later time, of the when some other disease has weakened the body’s defenses.
Of the 20 percent of infected persons in whom an active case does develop, only half will become sick within three months of contracting the infection; the other half will suffer from the disease at some time in their lives, perhaps years later. Tuberculosis usually affects the lungs, but it can also involve other parts of the body, such as spine, the kidneys, the digestive tract, and the lining of the heart.
Other Drugs Of Concern Drugs discussed in the following sections have been abused for many years. Unfortunately, some that had become less popular seem to be reappearing, along with a dangerous new generation of illicit drugs. Problems with any illegal drugs include "quality control". Because there is no federal regulation of these drugs and because people involved in transportation and distribution of illegal drugs are not always concerned with purity or quality, additives to any illegal drug may include dangerous and even poisonous substances. Also, it is frequently impossible to determine the potency of the drug. A very pure form of a drug can easily be lethal for an individual who has been using a form that has been "stepped on" and was less potent.
What is Mineral Nutrient Mineral are simple but important nutrients. As inorganic compounds they lack the complexity of vitamins, but they fulfill a variety of functions. For example, sodium and potassium affect shifts n body fluids, calcium and phosphorus contribute to the body's structure, iron is the core of hemoglobin (an oxygen-carrying compound in the blood), and iodine facilitates production of thyroxine ( hormone that influences metabolic rate).
There are 20 to 30 important nutritional minerals. Compared with the energy nutrients and water, minerals should be consumed in small amounts. Minerals that are present in the body and required in large amounts (more than 100 mg [1/50 teaspon] per day) are called major minerals or prominence, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and magnesium. Major minerals contribute from 60% to 80% of all inorganic material in the human body.
Cataract Causes, Symptoms and Treatment A cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye that results in obscured vision. People with this defect see their environment as if they were looking through a waterfall.
Normally, the lens is clear. Its function is to focus light onto the retina (the layer of light-sensitive cells lining the back of the eye), so that objects at various distances can be seen clearly. If the lens becomes hazy, however, incoming light is scattered, and vision blurs.
Macrocytic Anemia Causes and Treatment Anemias that are associated with macrocytosis (a mean corpuscular volume of >100 fL) include those from liver disease, alcoholism, hypothyroidism, certain drug exposures, megaloblastic anemia, myelodysplasias, preleukemia, or those with marked reticulocytosis due to the larger size of the young erythrocytes.
Characteristics of Anxiety Anxiety is an emotion and a subjective individual experience. It is an energy and therefore cannot be observed directly. A nurse infers that appetent is anxious based on certain behavior. The nurse needs to validate this with the patient. Also anxiety is an emotion without a specific object. It is provided by the unknown and precedes all new experiences such as entering school, starting a new job, or giving birth to a child.
The characteristic of anxiety differentiates it from fear. Fear is are individual ideation with specific source or object that the person can identify and describe. Fear involves the intellectual appraisal of a threatening stimulus, anxiety involves the emotional response to that appraisal. A person generally fears a set of circumstances that may occur at same point in the future. A fear is caused by physical or psychological exposure to a threatening situation. Fear produces anxiety. The two emotions are differentiated in speech, we speak of having a fear but of being anxious.
Nasopharyngeal cancer symptoms and prognosis Are you looking for Nasopharyngeal cancer symptoms and prognosis? Nasopharyngeal cancer develops in the nasopharynx, an area in the back of the nose toward the base of skull. To understand nasopharyngeal cancer, it helps to know about the structure and function of the nasopharynx.
Naproxen Side Effects 500mg Long Term Naproxen is in a group of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It works by reducing hormones that cause inflammation and pain in the body.
Propofol infusion syndrome and other side effects Propofol (INN, marketed as Diprivan by AstraZeneca) is a short-acting, intravenously administered hypnotic agent. Its uses include the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, sedation for mechanically ventilated adults, and procedural sedation. Propofol is also commonly used in veterinary medicine. Propofol is approved for use in more than 50 countries, and generic versions are available.
Gastroenteritis Symptoms in Children If gastroenteritis in a child is severe enough to require admission to a hospital, then it is important to distinguish between bacterial and viral infections. Bacteria, Shigella and Campylobacter, for example, and parasites like Giardia can be treated with antibiotics.
A child with gastroenteritis may be lethargic, suffer lack of sleep, run a low fever, have signs of dehydration (which include dry mucous membranes), tachycardia, reduced skin turgor, skin color discoloration, sunken fontanelles, sunken eyeballs, darkened eye circles, glassy eyes, poor perfusion and ultimately shock.
What is a Low Glycemic Diet A recent Harvard study found that a low-glycemic diet was the best of three popular diets at both maintaining metabolism during weight loss and maintaining cardiovascular health. But what is it and what are low glycemic foods anyway?
The diet, which is also known as the glycemic index diet or GI diet, emphasizes unprocessed foods, complex carbs and food combining. It was originally developed as a diet to help diabetes patients regulate their blood sugar and, according to WebMD, is still most effective in this capacity. Many popular diets, including Nutrisystem, the Zone diet, Sugar Busters and South Beach diet incorporate low-glycemic principles.