Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buergerís disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buergerís disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
What is a missed abortion A missed abortion is a miscarriage in which the fetus dies but the uterus does not expel the pregnancy tissue immediately. Before ultrasound was available, it was thought this happen only occasionally. Now we know that in many pregnancies the fetus stop growing and dies and woman will not star bleeding or cramping until much later. Without ultrasound, she would not have known for several weeks that the pregnancy was not still growing in a normal way. She would be unaware of the condition until she finally started the typical bleeding of miscarriage.
Causes of Asthma and Diet for Treatment Asthma is a disease that affects the bronchial tubes leading to our
lungs, resulting in periods of wheezing and shortness of breath. Not only has
the number of asthma sufferers escalated worldwide, but recent research has
indicated that more than 10% of South Africans are affected and that it is
definitely the most common of the chronic childhood illnesses. Pollution from
traffic fumes is without doubt a contributing factor, as during school holidays
incidences of attacks are reduced as there is less traffic.
Other atmospheric pollutants such as pollen, cigarette smoke and car exhaust
fumes can all be triggers. The incidence of occupational asthma is also high in
this country, caused by contact with airborne particles e.g. flour, soap powder
and paint. Even stressful situations and chronic exhaustion can trigger an
attack as can eating foods to which you have a sensitivity (such as sulphur
dioxide, used as a preservative in many dried fruit). You can also suffer
exercise-induced asthma. People who take paracetamol every day are twice as
likely to suffer asthma, and if you take it twice weekly you are 80% more likely
to be affected.
Kidney Failure Symptoms in Men Renal failure or kidney failure (formerly called renal insufficiency) describes a medical condition in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter toxins and waste products from the blood. The two forms are acute (acute kidney injury) and chronic (chronic kidney disease); a number of other diseases or health problems may cause either form of renal failure to occur.
Kidney failure can occur from an acute situation or from chronic problems.
In acute renal failure, kidney function is lost rapidly and can occur from a variety of insults to the body. The list of causes is often categorized based on where the injury has occurred.
Prerenal causes (pre=before + renal=kidney) causes are due to decreased blood supply to the kidney.
Tinnitus Treatment 2011 A person with tinnitus hears noise in one or both ears even in the absence of actual external sound. This condition brings with it many side problems other than the obvious discomfort of the phantom sound. It is s usually accompanied by dizziness, loss of balance, insomnia, hearing difficulties, depression, anxiety, and other similar issues. For somebody with this condition, finding a tinnitus treatment becomes imperative.
Treatment of heart failure due to systolic dysfunction A. Treatment of the underlying cardiac disease
Hypertension is the primary cause of HF in many patients.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta
blockers, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are
the preferred antihypertensive agents because they improve
survival in HF. Beta blockers can also provide anginal relief
in ischemic heart disease and rate control in with atrial
Renovascular disease. Testing for renovascular disease is
indicated if there is severe or refractory hypertension, a
sudden rise in blood pressure, or repeated episodes of flash
Ischemic heart disease. Coronary atherosclerosis is the
most common cause of cardiomyopathy, comprising 50 to
75 percent of patients with HF.
a. All patients with documented ischemic heart disease
should be treated medically for relief of angina and with
risk factor reduction, such as control of serum lipids.
b. Myocardial revascularization with angioplasty or bypass
surgery may improve exercise capacity and prognosis in
patients with hibernating myocardium. Revascularization
should also be considered for repeated episodes of acute
left ventricular dysfunction and flash pulmonary edema.
Valvular disease is the primary cause of HF 10 to 12 percent.
Other causes of heart failure: Alcohol abuse, cocaine
abuse, obstructive sleep apnea, nutritional deficiencies,
myocarditis, hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, thyroid disease,
and rheumatologic disorders such as systemic lupus
Safflower Oil Nutrition Value and Information Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual. It is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds. Plants are 30 to 150 cm tall with globular flower heads having yellow, orange or red flowers. Each branch will usually have from one to five flower heads containing 15 to 20 seeds per head. Safflower is native to arid environments having seasonal rain. It grows a deep taproot which enables it to thrive in such environments.
Managing Your Eating Behavior Letís face it. Eating for health is not easy. It takes knowledge, careful though and analysis, and the ability to put it all together and make the best decisions for your own lifestyle and personal goals within certain budgetary limits. There are no shortcuts, and what is true today may turn out to be false tomorrow. But by paying attention; reading; seeking help from reputable, trained professionals; and planning ahead, you can increase your own nutritional health. The following recommendations will help you improve your nutritional status :
Jenny Craig Weight Lose Program Reviews
Jenny Craig isn't a Janie-come-lately to the diet field. The program began in 1983 in Australia and started U.S. operations in 1985.
The Jenny Craig method is a three-level food-mind-body plan to help people lose weight and keep it off.
Clozapine Side Effects Management Clozapine (sold as Clozaril, Azaleptin, Leponex, Fazaclo, Froidir; Denzapine, Zaponex in the UK; Klozapol in Poland, Clopine in Australia and New Zealand) is an antipsychotic medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia, and is also used off-label in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Wyatt. R and Chew. R (2005) tells us there are three pharmaceutical companies that market this drug at present: Novartis Pharmaceuticals (manufacturer), Mylan Laboratories and Ivax Pharmaceuticals (market generic clozapine). The first of the atypical antipsychotics to be developed, it was first introduced in Europe in 1971, but was voluntarily withdrawn by the manufacturer in 1975 after it was shown to cause agranulocytosis, a condition involving a dangerous decrease in the number of white blood cells, that led to death in some patients. In 1989, after studies demonstrated that it was more effective than any other antipsychotic for treating schizophrenia, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved clozapine's use but only for treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
Spinal Stenosis Definition and Treatment What is defintion of Spinal Stenosis. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of one or more areas in your spine ó most often in your neck or lower back. This narrowing can put pressure on the spinal cord or spinal nerves at the level of compression. Stenoses of the vascular type are often associated with unusual blood sounds resulting from turbulent flow over the narrowed blood vessel. This sound can be made audible by a stethoscope, but diagnosis is generally made or confirmed with some form of medical imaging.
aortic stenosis (AS) a narrowing of the aortic orifice of the heart or of the aorta near the valve.
hypertrophic pyloric stenosis narrowing of the pyloric canal due to muscular hypertrophy and mucosal edema, usually in infants.
Gout diet recipes Gout, a painful form of arthritis, has long been associated with diet, particularly overindulgence in meat, seafood and alcohol. As a result, gout treatment used to include severe dietary restrictions, which made the gout diet hard to stick to. Fortunately, newer medications to treat gout have reduced the need for a strict gout diet.
A gout diet reduces your intake of foods that are high in purines, which helps control your body's production of uric acid. If you're overweight or obese, lose weight. However, avoid fasting and rapid weight loss because these can promote a gout attack. Drink plenty of fluids to help flush uric acid from your body. Also avoid high-protein diets, which can cause you to produce too much uric acid (hyperuricemia).
Staying Fit during Pregnancy Like many other attitudes, our thinking on fitness during pregnancy has changed in recent years. No longer is a pregnant woman treated as fragile. A woman needs to be quite careful when carrying a baby, but these days a doctor is more likely to advise against a sedentary lifestyle for a healthy pregnant woman. Exercise during pregnancy can increase a womanís muscle strength, making delivery of the baby easier and faster. Exercise can also help control her weight, making it easier to get back to normal weight after delivery. The baby may benefit from the motherís exercise program as well.