Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Uterus Didelphys Pregnancy and Symptoms Uterus didelphys (sometimes also uterus didelphis) represents a uterine malformation where the uterus is present as a paired organ as the embryogenetic fusion of the mullerian ducts failed to occur. As a result there is a double uterus with two separate cervices, and often a double vagina as well. Each uterus has a single horn linked to the ipsilateral fallopian tube that faces its ovary.
In a female fetus, the uterus starts out as two small tubes. As the fetus develops, the tubes normally join to create one larger, hollow organ — the uterus. Sometimes, however, the tubes don't join completely. Instead, each one develops into a separate structure. This condition is called double uterus (uterus didelphys).
Yeast Infection Natural Treatment Yeast is a fungus that normally lives in the vagina in small numbers. A vaginal yeast infection means that too many yeast cells are growing in the vagina camera. These infections are very common. Although they can bother you a lot, they are not usually serious. And treatment is simple.
Natural yeast infection Treatment are extremely useful against yeast infection. Many women and men alike are turning to natural remedies for yeast infection because of its health benefit as compared to over-the-counter medications and creams containing clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin, Femizole-7 and others), miconazole (Monistat-Derm, Monistat 7, Monistat Vaginal and others), tioconazole (Vagistat Vaginal), fluconazole (Diflucan) and butoconazole (Femstat 3). Nystatin and amphotericin B are also antifungal agents found in some OTC or prescribed medications.
Foods to help anemia treatment Abnormally low numbers of red blood cells and reduction in the amount of hemoglobin in those cells results in anemia. Because red blood cells are needed as carriers of oxygen to the tissues, oxygen supply to the body is subsequently interrupted. The exact cause of anemia must be diagnosed by physician before any treatment can begin.
Anemia can be caused bay an iron deficiency due to blood loss from excessive menstrual flow, gastrointestinal bleeding and ulcers, during pregnancy, breast-feeding, from frequent blood donations, colon cancer, or lack of iron in the diet. It can result from autoimmunity, a condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks itself, in this case the red blood cells; or from a malfunction of the bone marrow system when it is adversely affected by infection, cancer or toxic chemical exposure or radiation. Anemia can also occur because of a deficiency of vitamin B6, B12, folic acid, or copper; and from certain anti-inflammatory drugs or antibiotics or an excessive consumption of alcohol. Genetics may also be a factor.
Symptoms Ovarian Cancer Are you looking for article about symptoms ovarian cancer? Here is good stuff about ovarian cancer symptoms.
The 5-year survival rate for ovarian cancer by stage is not significantly different from the 5-year survival rate for other gynecologic cancers; however, there is a significant difference in stages, with ovarian cancer usually having spread into the abdomen in about two thirds of patients at the time of diagnosis. It is clear from these data that the single most important factor in the large number of deaths from ovarian cancer is the failure to diagnosis the disease at an early stage. The reasons for this failure correspond to the growth and spread patterns of the disease. Because the ovary floats freely in the pelvic cavity, a tumor can grow for some time without producing symptoms associated with involvement of, or pressure on, other organs.
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes—is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
What is oxycodone and the side effects What is oxycodone? and what are oxycodone side effects? Oxycodone (OxyContin and other brand names) is an opioid analgesic medication synthesized from opium-derived thebaine. It was developed in 1916 in Germany, as one of several new semi-synthetic opioids in an attempt to improve on the existing opioids: morphine, diacetylmorphine (heroin), and codeine.
Appendicitis Diagnosis and Physical examination About 10% of the population will develop acute appendicitis during their lifetime, and the disorder most commonly develops in the teens and twenties. Appendicitis is caused by appendiceal obstruction, mucosal ischemia, infection, and perforation. Escherichia coli occurs in 80%, Bacteroides fragilis in 70%, and Pseudomonas spp in 40%.
Psoriasis Treatment Guidelines and Pictures Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells. Psoriasis is not contagious. There are five types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular and erythrodermic. The most common form, plaque psoriasis, is commonly seen as red and white hues of scaly patches appearing on the top first layer of the epidermis (skin). Some patients, though, have no dermatological symptoms. Here is some guidelines for Psoriasis Treatment
What is systolic blood pressure definition What is systolic blood pressure definition? Systolic blood pressure is the amount of pressure that blood exerts on vessels while the heart is beating. In a blood pressure reading (such as 120/80), it is the number on the top. If the top and bottom blood pressures are both too high, a person is said to have high blood pressure. If only the top number is higher than 140, the person has a condition called isolated systolic hypertension.
Erythema Multiforme and Stevens Johnson Syndrome Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute hypersensitivity reaction characterized by distinctive skin lesions and mucous membrane involvement that has a spectrum of severity. It occurs in two forms: the more common "minor" type and the more severe "major" type, also called Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Sometimes EM includes toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) or Lyell disease. EM minor first was described completely by von Hebra in 1866; Stevens and Johnson described the major variant in 1922. EM occurs more often in males, and 20% to 50% of cases occur in the pediatric age group, although rarely in those younger than age 3 years. A winter predominance is suggested.
The pathologic process responsible for EM is unknown. A review of the literature generates an extensive list of causative or inciting agents. Most frequently mentioned are sulfonamide antibiotics and anticonvulsants, both used commonly in pediatric practice. Malignancies, radiotherapy, autoimmune diseases, and infectious agents such as mycoplasma also have been implicated as possible causes. In 1992, Weston et al described a high incidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in EM lesions among both adults and children with or without a preceding history of HSV infection.
Pseudogout crystals Pseudogout crystals are small enough and dull enough that they’re relatively difficult to see. Well, how do you see them? You take a pallet spin it down or take fluids spin it down to a pallet resuspend it, your chances of seeing pyrophosphate crystals go up about 70% or if you use a pallet. This is clinically an acute podagra. The inflammation is so intense that you actually peel off the skin like a blister. How come this is not cellulitis, sometimes it is difficult to sort out, as I say, the two can co-exist. The location is consistent with gout; in this particular case you can see tophaceous draining. This is chronic polyarticular tophaceous gout in a female patient that mimics rheumatoid arthritis. No history of acute podagra, this patient is 75 years of age, underlying osteoarthritis with crystal deposition disease. Different disease in men and women.
Mesenteric Ischemia Mesenteric ischemia is classified as acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI). AMI is subdivided into occlusive and nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia. Occlusive mesenteric ischemia results from either thrombotic or embolic arterial or venous occlusion. Approximately 80% of cases of AMI are occlusive in etiology, with arterial emboli or thromboses in 65% of cases and venous thrombosis in 15%. Arterial occlusions result from emboli in 75% of patients and in situ thrombosis cause the remaining 25%. NOMI is caused by low perfusion states and is responsible for 20% of AMI.
The effect of Monosodium Glutamate The effect of monosodium glutamate on the apoptosis
of rat thymocytes and Bcl-2 protein expression
Voja Pavlović, Snežana Cekić
Arch Med Sci 2006; 2, 1: 28-31
Introduction: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid
widely spread in modern nutrition. Numerous recent studies have shown the
existance of glutamic receptors on different non-neuronal cells, which among
others also include lymphocytes and thymocytes. However, it has not yet been
precisely established what modulatory effect is created by the activation of these
receptors on the immune system cells.