Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Scarlet fever rash picture, symptoms and treatment Scarlet fever (sometimes referred to as scarlatina) is an infectious disease characterized by fever, sore throat (pharyngitis), and a characteristic rash. Scarlet fever is caused by an infection with group A Streptococcus, the same bacteria responsible for causing "strep throat" and various other skin infections (for example, impetigo and erysipelas). Scarlet fever is predominantly a childhood disease occurring in children 2-10 years of age, though it can less commonly occur in older children and adults. The incidence and mortality rates associated with this once feared disease have significantly decreased due to the introduction and widespread use of antibiotics.
Best Heart Rate Monitor Reviews If you're trying to get in shape and lose weight, a heart rate monitor is an excellent way to monitor your intensity and see how many calories you're burning. The following list offers a wide variety of choices, from the exerciser who wants something simple to the multi-sport athlete who wants all the bells and whistles. These heart rate monitors have gotten some of the best reviews out there for functionality and quality.
Echocardiographic diagnosis in carcinoid heart disease W.F. Wonnink-de Jonge, C.T.A.M. Knibbeler-van Rossum, C. van der Heul, W.H. Pasteuning 181
In this case report the typical echocardiographic features
of carcinoid heart disease are presented. Newer treatments
such as the use of a somatostatin analogue, interferon and
hepatic de-arterialisation have improved the prognosis in
patients with carcinoid syndrome. Nevertheless this syndrome
portends a poor prognosis in patients with cardiac
involvement. Cardiac lesions are mainly located in the
right side of the heart.
New Treatments for Epididymitis The epididymis is located along the posterior border of the testicle with the head. Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis that causes pain and swelling of the epididymis and often of the adjacent testicle. It may be accompanied by abdominal pain and fever. It is usually seen in young men but may occur at any age.
Filariasis Symptoms and Treatment The species of mosquitoes that transmit malaria and yellow fever, disease caused by protozoa and viruses, also transmit filariasis, caused by a parasitic worm—a nematode or roundworm. Filariasis affects 300 million people living in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. The worm invades the subcutaneous tissues and lymph system of the human body, blocking the flow lymph and producing symptoms of inflammation, edema, abscesses, and, in one form of the disease, blindness. Filariasis is not unknown to Americans; some 15,000 soldiers contracted disease during World War II fighting in the Pacific Theater, and cases have been reported along the Carolina coast area. But most of the victims of filariasis live in a region extending from Africa through Asia to the islands of New Guinea and Borneo.
What is Graves Disease and Symptoms What Is Graves' Disease? First described by Sir Robert Graves in the early 19th century, Graves' disease is one of the most common of all thyroid problems. It is also the leading cause of hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces excessive hormones. Once the disorder has been correctly diagnosed, it is quite easy to treat. In some cases, Graves' disease goes into remission or disappears completely after several months or years. Left untreated, however, it can lead to serious complications -- even death. Although the symptoms can cause discomfort, Graves' disease generally has no long-term adverse health consequences if the patient receives prompt and proper medical care.
Gastroenteritis Symptoms in Children If gastroenteritis in a child is severe enough to require admission to a hospital, then it is important to distinguish between bacterial and viral infections. Bacteria, Shigella and Campylobacter, for example, and parasites like Giardia can be treated with antibiotics.
A child with gastroenteritis may be lethargic, suffer lack of sleep, run a low fever, have signs of dehydration (which include dry mucous membranes), tachycardia, reduced skin turgor, skin color discoloration, sunken fontanelles, sunken eyeballs, darkened eye circles, glassy eyes, poor perfusion and ultimately shock.
Local Treatment of Allergic Dermatitis Most Persons who suffer with allergic dermatitis have accumulated numberless lotions, salves, ointments, and other local preparations. These have either been prescribed for them or suggested to them by their family or friends. For the most part, the effects of these long-continued local applications is to further irritate and traumatize the skin, so that in the end more harm than good is done. First take away all these various drugs and prescribe only such bland preparations as are least likely to injure the skin. These must be cautiously and carefully applied, observing their changing effect. Indeed, at times it is necessary to use the preparation of one area of the skin only, such as one arm or one leg, and observe the difference between the dermatitis on that are and on the area of the body where no preparation has been used.
HCG Diet Plan Phase 2 Are you looking for HCG Diet Plan Phase 2? HCG stands for Human Chronicle Gonadotropin hormone which helps lose weight. This is an effective approach used by most women today. HCG diet plan is a kind of program that promises to help you lose 1 pound daily with the help of a proper diet meal plan. On the other hand, a diet meal plan should be strictly followed to ensure an efficient result.
What is Morgellons Disease Morgellons (also called Morgellons disease or Morgellons syndrome) is a name that was given in 2002 by stay-at-home-mom Mary Leitao to a proposed condition characterized by a range of cutaneous (skin) symptoms including crawling, biting, and stinging sensations (formication); finding fibers on or under the skin; and persistent skin lesions (e.g., rashes or sores). Most doctors, including dermatologists and psychiatrists, regard Morgellons as a manifestation of known medical conditions, including delusional parasitosis.
Family Health Nursing “Family health nursing is the practice of nursing directed towards maximizing the health and well-being of all individuals within a family system. It incorporates two views of family; family as a unit of care and family as a system existing within larger system. Levels of intervention are individuals the personal, the family system, and the environmental level. The goals of the family health nursing include optimal functioning for the individual and for the family as a unit.”
The family as a unit of care means that the entire family is the recipient of nursing intervention. This view point recognizes the mandate in the standards of community health nursing’s practice that identifies clients as individuals, families and communities. In contrast, the family as context recognizes the impact the family has on an individual. This viewpoint underscores the need to understand the family environment in which the individual exists.
Managing Your Eating Behavior Let’s face it. Eating for health is not easy. It takes knowledge, careful though and analysis, and the ability to put it all together and make the best decisions for your own lifestyle and personal goals within certain budgetary limits. There are no shortcuts, and what is true today may turn out to be false tomorrow. But by paying attention; reading; seeking help from reputable, trained professionals; and planning ahead, you can increase your own nutritional health. The following recommendations will help you improve your nutritional status :
Exactly who does smoking affect baby Cigarette smoking produces a number of abnormalities in a mother’s body. First, cyanide (a strong poison) is produced from smoking. This by product from smoking goes directly to your tissue and to the tissue of your baby, producing hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in the individual cell. In addition to this, nicotine causes constriction of the boob vessels of your body, decreasing the amount of blood flowing through the placenta and adding to the hypoxia produced by the cyanide.