Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Ear Infection Treatment Adult and Antibiotics Are you looking for Ear Infection Treatment for Adult and what are Antibiotics for ear infection?
Ear infections occur when a cold, throat infection, or allergy attack causes fluid to become trapped in the middle ear. Mostly affecting children, symptoms include earaches and thick, yellow fluid coming from the ears. A small tube connects your ear to your throat. These two tubes are called eustachian tubes (say "yoo-STAY-shee-un"). A cold can cause this tube to swell. When the tube swells enough to become blocked, it can trap fluid inside your ear. This makes it a perfect place for germs to grow and cause an infection.
Syphilis types symptoms and treatment Syphilis, the other well-known sexually transmitted disease, is also caused by a bacterial organism, the spirochete known as Treponema pallidum. Because it s extremely delicate and dies readily upon exposure to air, dryness, or cold, the organism is generally transferred only through direct sexual contact. Typically, this means contact between sexual organs during intercourse, but in rare instances, the organism enters the body through a break in the skin, through deep kissing in which body fluids are exchanged, or through some other transmission of body fluids.
Signs and Symptoms of Hypothyroidism Are you looking for signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism?Hypothyroidism affects two out of every thousand women. It affects about 6-10% of women over the age of 65 and about 2-3% of men.
The most common cause of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's thyroiditis, a chronic autoimmune destruction of the thyroid. Other causes of hypothyroidism include radioactive iodine, thyroidectomy, thioamide drugs, and iodine ingestion. Transient hypothyroidism can occur in patients with acute thyroiditis.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Diet Cure and Foods to Avoid Rheumatoid arthritis is primarily an inflammatory disease. It is an
autoimmune disorder whereby the body's own immune system starts attacking joint
tissue. A chronic disease, it tends to progress over time, but many people find
the pain and stiffness come and go for far varying periods of time. Rheumatoid
arthritis affects three times as many women as men. It is now thought that over
acidity in the body and uric acid deposits in the joints are major contributing
Researches in England have found that at least one third of people can
completely control their Rheumatoid arthritis bu eliminating foods to which they
have a sensitivity. The most common culprits are any foods and drinks containing
cow's milk as well as the nightshade group of fruit and vegetables.
Symptoms of Gallbladder Dysfunction Are you looking for symptoms of gallbladder dysfunction? What is important to say when it comes to gallbladder symptoms is that people can be quite unaware that their digestion problems actually come from their gallbladder. The reason for this is that gallbladder symptoms are closely related to other signs of digestion disorders. So keep in mind that all the symptoms you find here may be related not only to your gallbladder but to other organs as well. Sometimes only one of these symptoms is enough to show you that something is wrong with your gallbladder. So if you experience one of the symptoms listed below (or more of them), visit your doctor.
In vertebrates the gallbladder (cholecyst, gall bladder, Biliary Vesicle) is a small organ that aids mainly in fat digestion and concentrates bile produced by the liver. In humans the loss of the gallbladder is usually easily tolerated.
Migraine Headache Treatment and Medication Guidelines Sumatriptan
Sumatriptan (Imitrex) is available in three forms: subcutaneous injection,
nasal spray, and oral tablet. Injectable sumatriptan comes as a 6 mg dose for
use with an autoinjector. Subcutaneous sumatriptan is the most effective triptan.
It works extremely quickly with 50% headache response at 30 minutes, a one-hour
headache response of 77%, and more than 80% at two hours. Recurrence of migraine
within 24 hours after a headache response with injectable sumatriptan is 34-38%.
Recurrence with the spray and tablet is 35-40%.
Nasal spray sumatriptan. 20 mg is the optimal dose, with a two-hour headache
response of 64%. Almost 40% have headache response at 30 minutes. The spray
comes in a single-use device. When sniffed, it causes a terrible taste in the
back of the throat; therefore, patients should spray it once in one nostril and
not sniff in.
Emphysema Life Expectancy Stages Emphysema occurs when the air sacs in your lungs are gradually destroyed, making you progressively more short of breath. Emphysema is one of several diseases known collectively as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema.
As it worsens, emphysema turns the spherical air sacs — clustered like bunches of grapes — into large, irregular pockets with gaping holes in their inner walls. This reduces the surface area of the lungs and, in turn, the amount of oxygen that reaches your bloodstream.
Candida albicans Causes, Those at Risk, Symptoms and Treatment Candida albicans is a fungus that is normally present on the skin and on membranes of the mouth, throat, intestines, and vagina. It becomes an infecting agent only when there is some change in the body environment that allows it to grow out of control.
Psoriasis Symptoms in Children Psoriasis is a skin disease that causes itchy or sore patches of thick, red skin with silvery scales. You usually get them on your elbows, knees, scalp, back, face, palms and feet, but they can show up on other parts of your body. A problem with your immune system causes psoriasis. In a process called cell turnover, skin cells that grow deep in your skin rise to the surface. Normally, this takes a month. In psoriasis, it happens in just days because your cells rise too fast. Here is some stuff about Psoriasis Symptoms in Children.
Leprosy Symptoms and Causes Leprosy or Hansen's disease (HD) is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Named after physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen, leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions are the primary external sign. Left untreated, leprosy can be progressive, causing permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs and eyes. Contrary to folklore, leprosy does not cause body parts to fall off, although they can become numb or diseased as a result of secondary infections; these occur as a result of the body's defenses being compromised by the primary disease. Secondary infections, in turn, can result in tissue loss causing fingers and toes to become shortened and deformed, as cartilage is absorbed into the body.
Pulmonary Hypoplasia and Congenital Renal Anomalies Caroline May, Anne Greenough
Arch Med Sci 2006; 2, 1: 6-9
The association of pulmonary hypoplasia with bilateral renal agenesis is well
recognised. It is important, however, for clinicians to be aware that pulmonary
hypoplasia does occur with other congenital renal anomalies and worsens the
Furosemide Side Effects and Dosage Furosemide is a loop diuretic (water pill) that prevents your body from absorbing too much salt, allowing the salt to instead be passed in your urine. Furosemide treats fluid retention in people with congestive heart failure, liver disease, or a kidney disorder such as nephrotic syndrome. This medication is also used to treat high blood pressure. Here is some stuff about Furosemide Side Effects and Dosage.
Causes of Migraine Headache and Symptoms Migraine affects 15% to 17% of women and 6% of men. Headaches can generally
be grouped into three major categories: migraine, tension-type, and organic.
Migraine headaches are usually unilateral, and the acute attack typically
lasts from 4 to 24 hours. Migraine headaches can occur with an aura or without
an aura. The aura may consist of focal neurologic symptoms starting 5 to 30
minutes before onset of an acute headache attack.