Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Women and Cardiovascular Disease Heart disease is the number one killer of both men and women. In the United States, heart attacks kill about 240,000 women a year; stroke takes another 88,000 women’s lives. That compares with about 43,000 women who die annually from breast cancer. In fact, nearly twice as many women die of CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) than all cancers combined.
While men do have more heart attacks and have them earlier in life, women have a much lower chance of surviving a heart attack. We understand the mechanism that cause CVD in men from years of male-oriented research. But only within the last decade have we moved toward a better understanding of how CVD manifests itself in women.
Diet and exercise plan articles Here is some articles about Diet and exercise plan. How can you lose weight? With diet and exercise. The key to successful weight loss is developing healthy diet and exercise habits. You may not like those words — diet and exercise. Don't get hung up on the words. Diet just means eating healthy, lower calorie meals. Exercise means being more active.
Emphysema Life Expectancy Stages Emphysema occurs when the air sacs in your lungs are gradually destroyed, making you progressively more short of breath. Emphysema is one of several diseases known collectively as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking is the leading cause of emphysema.
As it worsens, emphysema turns the spherical air sacs — clustered like bunches of grapes — into large, irregular pockets with gaping holes in their inner walls. This reduces the surface area of the lungs and, in turn, the amount of oxygen that reaches your bloodstream.
Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer Are you looking for chemotherapy for breast cancer? here is some article about chemotherapy for breast cancer.
The initial management of the breast cancer patient consists of assigning a clinical stage based on examination. The stage may be altered once the final pathology of the tumor has been determined. Staging of breast cancer is based on the TNM staging system.
Flexeril dosage and usage Flexeril (cyclobenzaprine) is a muscle relaxant. It works by blocking nerve impulses (or pain sensations) that are sent to your brain. Flexeril is used together with rest and physical therapy to treat skeletal muscle conditions such as pain or injury. Flexeril may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.
FOODS CAUSE OF ALLERGY People may be sensitive to single or to multiple foods. Here again are some foods which are botanically related, so that if a patient is sensitive to one food in this group, he sensitive to the others. Examples of this may be cited in the case of cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. Many of the sea foods and fresh water fish are thus similarly related; so that if a patient is sensitive to one type of fresh water fish, he is likely sensitive to the others. The most frequent allergy-producing foods are common foods, namely, milk, eggs and wheat, fish and nuts. It is unfortunate that this is the case because these are also essential foods, and this avoidance becomes a serious problem in undernourished people and in children of infants. When a patient is definitely sensitive to one or two foods only, it is not difficult for him to realize it himself. The difficulty arises, however, when he is allege to many foods. Under these circumstances he is likely to become confused and then he needs a physician's help. Allergy to a food may be of various degrees of severity. Symptoms of asthma or hives may not arise if only one food is eaten if the sensitivity is mild. However, if a number of such foods are ingested at one time, the symptoms may be pronounced. Another factor which is important in connection with the production of symptoms is the readiness with which a food is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The quicker the absorption, the more rapid will the symptoms develop after eating.
Reasons For Drug Use A drug is any chemical substance that can alter the structure and function of a living organism. People use drugs for many reasons. Some individuals need drugs for health reason-to maintain a normal life or to alleviate specific symptoms or complications of diseases or other conditions. Other people indulge in drugs to alter their moods.
The kind diet recipes and review Like many celebrities before her, actress Alicia Silverstone has put together a book that she says reveals the secrets of her great looks and knockout figure. In The Kind Diet, Silverstone attributes her health and beauty to her totally organic, vegan diet, free of "nasty" meat, dairy, white sugar, and processed foods.
In The Kind Diet, Silverstone, a passionate animal activist and conservationist, says a plant-based diet is not only good for your body but also saves animals and is one of the "greenest" things you can do. here is some review for The kind diet.
IVF Treatment Cost and Process Are you looking for about ivf treatment cost and process? In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process by which egg cells are fertilised by sperm outside the body: in vitro. IVF is a major treatment in infertility when other methods of assisted reproductive technology have failed. The process involves hormonally controlling the ovulatory process, removing ova (eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a fluid medium. The fertilised egg (zygote) is then transferred to the patient's uterus with the intent to establish a successful pregnancy. The first successful birth of a "test tube baby", Louise Brown, occurred in 1978. Robert G. Edwards, the doctor who developed the treatment, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2010. Before that, there was a transient biochemical pregnancy reported by Australian Foxton School researchers in 1953 and an ectopic pregnancy reported by Steptoe and Edwards in 1976. At the same time, Subash Mukhopadyay, a relatively unknown physician from Kolkata, India was performing experiments on his own with primitive instruments and a house hold refrigerator and this resulted in a test tube baby, later named as "Durga" (alias Kanupriya Agarwal) who was born on October 3, 1978
Leprosy Picture Symptoms and Treatment Cure What is Leprosy
Leprosy or Hansen's disease (HD), is a chronic disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Named after physician Gerhard Armauer Hansen, leprosy is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract; skin lesions are the primary external sign. Left untreated, leprosy can be progressive, causing permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs and eyes. Contrary to folklore, leprosy does not cause body parts to fall off, although they can become numb or diseased as a result of infection; infection results in tissue loss, so fingers and toes become shortened and deformed as the cartilage is absorbed into the body.
Currently, there are several areas (India, East Timor) of the world where the WHO and other agencies (for example, the Leprosy Mission) are working to decrease the number of clinical cases of leprosy and other diseases such as rabies and schistosomiasis that occur in remote regions. Although researchers hope to eliminate leprosy like smallpox, endemic (meaning prevalent or embedded in a region) leprosy makes complete eradication unlikely. In the U.S., leprosy has occurred infrequently but is considered endemic in Texas, Louisiana, Hawaii, and the U.S. Virgin Islands by some investigators.
Iron deficiency symptoms eyes Are you looking for iron deficiency symptoms eyes? Iron deficiency (sideropenia or hypoferremia) is one of the most common of the nutritional deficiencies. Iron is present in all cells in the human body, and has several vital functions. Examples include as a carrier of oxygen to the tissues from the lungs in the form of hemoglobin, as a transport medium for electrons within the cells in the form of cytochromes, and as an integral part of enzyme reactions in various tissues. Too little iron can interfere with these vital functions and lead to morbidity and death.
New Treatments for Epididymitis The epididymis is located along the posterior border of the testicle with the head. Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis that causes pain and swelling of the epididymis and often of the adjacent testicle. It may be accompanied by abdominal pain and fever. It is usually seen in young men but may occur at any age.
Infertility information for women Most traditional-age college students are interested in preventing pregnancy. However, increasing numbers of other people are trying to do just the opposite: they are trying to become pregnant. It is estimated that about one in six couples has a problem with infertility. The couples wish to become pregnant but are unable to do so.