Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Behavior Problems Among School aged Children Children's behavior is the result of the combination of temperament, inherited personality, and their experiences. It is possible to modify behavior by identifying and correcting adverse situations and by introducing appropriate interventions. Adverse situations may include child abuse or neglect, marital discord, or inappropriate class placement.
Identifying the Problems
The initial evaluation should determine what behaviors have been problematic and why, and it should determine under what circumstances the behaviors occur and how the parents deal with them. It is important to determine if there are other contributing factors at home or at school, such as family dysfunction or problems with peers.
More detailed information may be obtained through the use of behavior rating scales that are completed by parents and teachers. Behavior rating scales such as the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (for screening) or the Child Behavior Checklist (for more detailed information) will assess a broad range of behaviors.
Angina pectoris Sympstoms and Treatment Angina pectoris is a symptom of inadequate blood flow through the coronary arteries to the heart. It means chest pain (from the Latin angere meaning choke and pectoralis meaning chest). Angina pectoris occurs when some part of the heart muscle is not getting enough blood, usually during times of exertion or stress. At such times, the heart must work harder and faster. If one or more of the heart’s arteries is narrowed by disease, the extra blood and oxygen required to nourish the heart cannot reach a region of the heart muscle. Angina pain is a signal that muscle cells are being strained by an insufficiency of oxygen; they are, in effect, gasping for air.
The attacks are usually brief, lasting only a matter of minutes, and they normally stop when the person rests. Angina pectoris seldom causes permanent damage to the heart muscle.
What is an intrauterine contraceptive device, or IUD An IUD (intrauterine contraceptive device) is a small plastic device that can be inserted by a physician trough a woman’s cervix and into her uterus to prevent pregnancy. The procedure is done in a physician’s office, usually during or immediately after the menstrual period so that a woman can be sure she is not pregnant.
The Scope of Noise Exposure Noise is especially prevalent in the manufacturing industries. The US
Department of Labor has estimated that 19.3% of the workers in manufacturing and
utilities are exposed to daily average noise level of 90 dBA an above, 34.4% are
exposed to levels above 85 dBA, and 53.1% to levels above 80 dBA.
These estimates should be fairly typical of the percentage of workers exposed
to hazardous level of noise in other nations. The levels are likely to be
somewhat higher in less developed nations, where engineering controls are not
used as widely, and somewhat lower in nations with stronger noise control
programmes, such as Scandinavian Country and Germany.
Psoriasis Symptoms and Treatment Psoriasis is common, affecting 1.5-2.0% of the population. It affects all ages, with bimodal peaks of incidence at ages 20-30 and 50-60 years. Plaque-type psoriasis is easily identified by its discrete round orange-red plaques with silver scale on the scalp, elbows, knees, or trunk. When psoriasis appears as intertriginous, guttate, or nail-limited psoriasis, the diagnosis can be challenging.
Etiology. Psoriasis exhibits abnormalities of epidermal proliferation and migration of inflammatory cells, resulting in accelerated epidermal turnover time. Psoriasis, particularly extensive psoriasis, has a strong genetic component. Exacerbants of psoriasis include stress, probably alcohol, many drugs, infection, and steroids.
Yeast Infection Natural Treatment Yeast is a fungus that normally lives in the vagina in small numbers. A vaginal yeast infection means that too many yeast cells are growing in the vagina camera. These infections are very common. Although they can bother you a lot, they are not usually serious. And treatment is simple.
Natural yeast infection Treatment are extremely useful against yeast infection. Many women and men alike are turning to natural remedies for yeast infection because of its health benefit as compared to over-the-counter medications and creams containing clotrimazole (Gyne-Lotrimin, Femizole-7 and others), miconazole (Monistat-Derm, Monistat 7, Monistat Vaginal and others), tioconazole (Vagistat Vaginal), fluconazole (Diflucan) and butoconazole (Femstat 3). Nystatin and amphotericin B are also antifungal agents found in some OTC or prescribed medications.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Diet Cure and Foods to Avoid Rheumatoid arthritis is primarily an inflammatory disease. It is an
autoimmune disorder whereby the body's own immune system starts attacking joint
tissue. A chronic disease, it tends to progress over time, but many people find
the pain and stiffness come and go for far varying periods of time. Rheumatoid
arthritis affects three times as many women as men. It is now thought that over
acidity in the body and uric acid deposits in the joints are major contributing
Researches in England have found that at least one third of people can
completely control their Rheumatoid arthritis bu eliminating foods to which they
have a sensitivity. The most common culprits are any foods and drinks containing
cow's milk as well as the nightshade group of fruit and vegetables.
Drugs for Depression Are you looking for drugs for depression? here is some good stuff about drug for depression.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and physical well-being. It may include feelings of sadness, anxiety, emptiness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, irritability, or restlessness.
Bunion surgery recovery and photos Are you looking for Bunion surgery recovery and photos? Bunion surgery generally involves an incision in the top or side of the big toe joint and the removal or realignment of soft tissue and bone. This is done to relieve pain and restore normal alignment to the joint. If the joint is severely deformed, it may be stabilized with tiny wires, stitches, screws, or plates. There are no guarantees that a bunion surgery will fully relieve your pain.
Women and Cardiovascular Disease Heart disease is the number one killer of both men and women. In the United States, heart attacks kill about 240,000 women a year; stroke takes another 88,000 women’s lives. That compares with about 43,000 women who die annually from breast cancer. In fact, nearly twice as many women die of CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) than all cancers combined.
While men do have more heart attacks and have them earlier in life, women have a much lower chance of surviving a heart attack. We understand the mechanism that cause CVD in men from years of male-oriented research. But only within the last decade have we moved toward a better understanding of how CVD manifests itself in women.
Gluten Free Diet Plan Weight Loss A gluten-free diet is a diet that excludes foods containing gluten. Gluten is a protein found in wheat (including kamut and spelt), barley, rye, malts and triticale. It is used as a food additive in the form of a flavoring, stabilizing or thickening agent, often as "dextrin". A gluten-free diet is the only medically accepted treatment for celiac disease, the related condition dermatitis herpetiformis, and wheat allergy.
Hypertension treatment food and nutrients When pressure exerted by blood on the walls of the arteries is greater than normal, blood pressure rises. Usually, blood pressure falls when at rest. It rises in response to strenuous physical activity, stress, or a perceived danger in which the sympathetic nervous system dominates, arteries constrict and more blood is sent to the brain increasing blood pressure. This heightened state of the sympathetic system does not seem to retreat in individuals with hypertension and damage to the heart, kidney, arteries, and other organs becomes inevitable.
Blood pressure is considered high at a reading of 140/90. There are no symptoms of the illness and it is recommended individuals over 40 be checked. Hypertension can be controlled by permanent diet and lifestyle changes; this includes reducing stress, maintaining proper weight (not more than 5 lb overweight), and eating foods containing compounds that reduce blood pressure such as celery, garlic, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Having a home monitor is helpful. Smoking, alcohol, refined sugar, food allergies, and high sodium foods can contribute to hypertension. Some people may need extra calcium to stabilize blood pressure. Some individuals are salt sensitive which cause a rise in their blood pressure. Daily exercises and various stress reduction techniques lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure.