Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
What is Lobotomy definition Are you looking for lobotomy definition? here is some good list definition for lobotomy on internet.
Lobotomy, in medicine, destruction or removal of the prefrontal lobes of the cortex of the brain. The procedure was popularized by Portuguese psychiatrist Antonio Egas Moniz in 1935 as a means of controlling aggressive or violent behavior—work for which Moniz received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1949. The original procedure was modified in 1937 to involve severing almost all the nerve tracts connecting the prefrontal lobes with the rest of the brain. Although the operation was hailed as a major advance in treating severely emotionally ill patients, physicians realized in the late 1940s that many patients were transformed by the lobotomy into inactive individuals without initiative.
Varicose Veins Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Varicose veins are swollen, stretched veins in the legs, close to the surface of the skin, caused by pooling of blood. Varicose veins alone are not too serious, but they may lead to more serious condition, such as skin ulcer, phlebitis (inflammation of a vein), or thrombosis (blood clot formation).
Varicose Veins Causes
Blood from the legs must return to the heart uphill, against the force of gravity, so the veins in the legs gave one-way valves to prevent blood from flowing back down toward the feet. When pressure on the veins stretches them or when the valves are injured in some way, the valves cannot close properly, and some blood travels back down. This blood accumulates in pools, which stretch the veins even more.
Basic facts on fats Fat, also called lipid, is a compound made by chemically bonding fatty acids to glycerol to form glycerides. When three fatty acids are hooked to glycerol, the fat compound is a triglyceride. Almost 95% of fat stored in the body is triglyceride, with the remaining 5% consisting of other glycerides and cholesterol. Scientific literature usually refers to triglycerides when it discusses fat. The fatty acids that make up triglycerides can be saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated.
Chemically, fats are chains of carbon atoms strung together with hydrogen atoms. If it is a saturated fat, the carbon chain carries all the hydrogen atoms it can . If it is unsaturated, there is room in the carbon chain for more hydrogen. If the chain is monounsaturated, there os room for two hydrogen atoms. If it is polyunsaturated, there is room for four hydrogen atoms. If it is highly polyunsaturated, there is room for many more hydrogen atoms.
Erythema Multiforme and Stevens Johnson Syndrome Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute hypersensitivity reaction characterized by distinctive skin lesions and mucous membrane involvement that has a spectrum of severity. It occurs in two forms: the more common "minor" type and the more severe "major" type, also called Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Sometimes EM includes toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) or Lyell disease. EM minor first was described completely by von Hebra in 1866; Stevens and Johnson described the major variant in 1922. EM occurs more often in males, and 20% to 50% of cases occur in the pediatric age group, although rarely in those younger than age 3 years. A winter predominance is suggested.
The pathologic process responsible for EM is unknown. A review of the literature generates an extensive list of causative or inciting agents. Most frequently mentioned are sulfonamide antibiotics and anticonvulsants, both used commonly in pediatric practice. Malignancies, radiotherapy, autoimmune diseases, and infectious agents such as mycoplasma also have been implicated as possible causes. In 1992, Weston et al described a high incidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in EM lesions among both adults and children with or without a preceding history of HSV infection.
Cleanse Diet Oprah dr Oz On August 19, 2009, Harpo, Inc., producers of The Oprah Winfrey Show and The Dr. Oz Show, along with Dr. Mehmet Oz, filed a trademark infringement complaint against 40 Internet marketers of dietary supplements, including acai berry products among others. Neither Ms. Winfrey nor Dr. Oz has ever sponsored or endorsed any acai berry, resveratrol, colon cleanse or dietary supplement product.
Tobacco Products All tobacco products, including cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco (snuff and chewing tobacco), contain the drug nicotine. Nicotine is an addictive substances and an alkaloid poison. It affects the body by increasing heart and respiratory rates, elevating bolo pressure, increasing cardiac output and oxygen consumption, and constricting the the bronchi (the two main branches of the trachea that lead to the lungs). Nicotine is unhealed by anyone smoking a tobacco product. With smokeless tobacco, nicotine is absorbed through membranes of the mouth and cheek.
What is Mineral Nutrient Mineral are simple but important nutrients. As inorganic compounds they lack the complexity of vitamins, but they fulfill a variety of functions. For example, sodium and potassium affect shifts n body fluids, calcium and phosphorus contribute to the body's structure, iron is the core of hemoglobin (an oxygen-carrying compound in the blood), and iodine facilitates production of thyroxine ( hormone that influences metabolic rate).
There are 20 to 30 important nutritional minerals. Compared with the energy nutrients and water, minerals should be consumed in small amounts. Minerals that are present in the body and required in large amounts (more than 100 mg [1/50 teaspon] per day) are called major minerals or prominence, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, and magnesium. Major minerals contribute from 60% to 80% of all inorganic material in the human body.
Cold Sore Treatment Over the Counter Are you looking for cold sore treatment over the counter?A cold sore and a canker sore can come from the same herpes simplex virus, but they aren't the same thing. A cold sore is a small- to medium-size blister that appears on or around the mouth area. Cold sores can also appear in the nose. A canker sore is a virus-induced blister that is on the inside of the mouth. It usually takes 2 days to 2 weeks to heal. A cold sore, besides being red and painful, can also leak fluid.
Smoking Cessation To quit smoking is not easy! For the person who chooses (and it is a choose) to quit, the Mayo Clinic Health Letter offers the following suggestions:
Risk Reduction for Developing Cancer Because cancer will probably continue to be the second most common cause of death among adults, it is important for you to explore ways of reducing your risk of developing cancer. The following factors, which could make you vulnerable to cancer, can be controlled or at least recognized.
FOODS CAUSE OF ALLERGY People may be sensitive to single or to multiple foods. Here again are some foods which are botanically related, so that if a patient is sensitive to one food in this group, he sensitive to the others. Examples of this may be cited in the case of cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and cauliflower. Many of the sea foods and fresh water fish are thus similarly related; so that if a patient is sensitive to one type of fresh water fish, he is likely sensitive to the others. The most frequent allergy-producing foods are common foods, namely, milk, eggs and wheat, fish and nuts. It is unfortunate that this is the case because these are also essential foods, and this avoidance becomes a serious problem in undernourished people and in children of infants. When a patient is definitely sensitive to one or two foods only, it is not difficult for him to realize it himself. The difficulty arises, however, when he is allege to many foods. Under these circumstances he is likely to become confused and then he needs a physician's help. Allergy to a food may be of various degrees of severity. Symptoms of asthma or hives may not arise if only one food is eaten if the sensitivity is mild. However, if a number of such foods are ingested at one time, the symptoms may be pronounced. Another factor which is important in connection with the production of symptoms is the readiness with which a food is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. The quicker the absorption, the more rapid will the symptoms develop after eating.
Tularemia Symptoms and Treatment An infectious disease known as tularemia, sometimes called rabbit fever, is transmitted from animals to humans who come in contact with the animal tissues. It also can be transmitted through the bites of ticks or flies or by drinking contaminated water. Like the plague-disease organism, tularemia can be transmitted by inhalation of infected particles from the lungs of a diseased person, although such occurrences are rare.
Drug Classification Drugs are commonly classified according to the physiological effect they have. Categories include stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, narcotics, and inhalants. Two other types are also important. First, designer drugs are manufactured to mimic the effects if drugs found in the previously mentioned categories. Designer drugs usually are not illegal because their chemical formula has been altered from the original drug. The other drug, marijuana, is difficult to classify but is usually included as a hallucinogen. Depending on the dose, marijuana can mimic a variety of substances found in other categories.