Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Dementia stages symptoms Are you looking for dementia stages symptoms? Dementia is a serious loss of cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. It may be static, the result of a unique global brain injury, or progressive, resulting in long-term decline due to damage or disease in the body. Although dementia is far more common in the geriatric population, it can occur before the age of 65, in which case it is termed "early onset dementia".
Symptoms of dementia can be classified as either reversible or irreversible, depending upon the etiology of the disease. Less than 10% of cases of dementia are due to causes that may presently be reversed with treatment. Causes include many different specific disease processes, in the same way that symptoms of organ dysfunction such as shortness of breath, jaundice, or pain are attributable to many etiologies.
What is a Low Glycemic Diet A recent Harvard study found that a low-glycemic diet was the best of three popular diets at both maintaining metabolism during weight loss and maintaining cardiovascular health. But what is it and what are low glycemic foods anyway?
The diet, which is also known as the glycemic index diet or GI diet, emphasizes unprocessed foods, complex carbs and food combining. It was originally developed as a diet to help diabetes patients regulate their blood sugar and, according to WebMD, is still most effective in this capacity. Many popular diets, including Nutrisystem, the Zone diet, Sugar Busters and South Beach diet incorporate low-glycemic principles.
Plague Sympyoms, Treatment and Prevention Bubonic plague, is transmitted to humans through direct or indirect contact with animals. At least three great epidemics of bubonic plague have been recorded, including the Black Death of the 14th century, when the disease claimed at least 50 million lives. While recent cases of the plague in North America have been relatively rare, cases still occur in the western United States. Increased outdoor activity in those areas has resulted in a higher incidence of the disease among humans in recent years.
Arteries, Veins, Capillaries and The Heart The blood away which carry the bright red oxygenated blood away from the heart are called arteries. The large arteries, which receive the blood directly from form the heart, branch repeatedly until every part of the body is served by one or more of them.
The blood returns from all parts of the body to the heart through veins. There are many more veins than arteries throughout the body. The veins gradually unite to form larger veins as they approach the heart.
Leprosy Symptoms, Causes and Treatment More than 10 million people are victims of leprosy, an infectious disorder also known as Hansen’s disease. Although leprosy is more common in tropical regions, where up to 10 percent of some population groups may be affected, the disease also occurs in several northern countries, including the United States, where the disease is found in coastal states from California through Texas and Louisiana, and from Florida to New York. Ancient medical writings indicate that leprosy was known in China and India about 3,000 years ago but did not spread to the eastern Mediterranean until A.D. 500 or 600.
Ovarian Cancer Staging and Treatment Are you looking for article about ovarian cancer staging and treatment? Here is good stuff about ovarian cancer staging and treatment.
The FIGO staging classification scheme for ovarian cancer is outlined in the box, page 42. The staging of advanced disease (spread throughout the abdomen) may be obvious to most physicians, but it is important for a surgeon to be meticulous in the staging of early ovarian cancer. In one study it was found that one third of patients referred with stage I or stage II disease were actually found to have stage III disease when the appropriate staging operation was performed. Similar results have been reported by other researchers.
Echocardiographic diagnosis in carcinoid heart disease W.F. Wonnink-de Jonge, C.T.A.M. Knibbeler-van Rossum, C. van der Heul, W.H. Pasteuning 181
In this case report the typical echocardiographic features
of carcinoid heart disease are presented. Newer treatments
such as the use of a somatostatin analogue, interferon and
hepatic de-arterialisation have improved the prognosis in
patients with carcinoid syndrome. Nevertheless this syndrome
portends a poor prognosis in patients with cardiac
involvement. Cardiac lesions are mainly located in the
right side of the heart.
Misophonia symptoms and treatment What is Misophonia definition? Misophonia – literally the hatred of sound -can be defined as a hypersensitivity to background sounds or visual stimuli that are generally ignored by other people. More importantly than the individuals inability to block out the offending stimuli or “trigger” is the acute negative emotional response experienced as a direct result of being in contact with a trigger.
Misophonia commonly occurs along with hyperacusis and/or tinnitus, but can appear by itself. One of the tools we use to treat misophonia at AC Associates is called Tinnitus Retraining Therapy (TRT). TRT recognizes the specific involvement of various components of the auditory pathways of the nervous system in occurrences of tinnitus, hyperacusis and misophonia. For treatment of misophonia, TRT uses a method based on the active removal of conditioned reflexive responses to sound, allowing patients to feel like themselves again.
Causes, Control and Prevention of Heat Stress Although human beings process considerable ability to compensate for naturally occurring heat stress, many occupational environments and/or physical activities expose worker to heat loads which are so excessive as to threaten their health and productivity. Many varieties of techniques can be used to minimize the incidence of heat disorders and reduce the severity of cases when they do occur. Interventions fall into five categories: maximizing heat tolerance among exposed individuals, assuring timely replacement of lost fluid and electrolytes, altering work practice to reduce exertion heat load, engineering control of climatic conditions, and use of protective clothing.
Factors outside the worksite which may affect thermal tolerance should not be ignored in the evaluation of the extent of exposure and consequently in elaborating preventive strategies. For example, total physiological burden and the potential susceptibility to heat disorders will be much higher if heat stress continues during off-duty hours thought work at second jobs, strenuous leisure activities, or living in unremittingly hot quarters. In addition, nutritional status and hydration may reflect patterns of eating and drinking, which may also change with season or religious observances.
Maximizing Individual Heat Tolerance
Symptoms of Heart Disease in Women Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among American women, is more lethal in women than men, and is less aggressively treated in women than in men. Perhaps most troubling is how little women understand about cardiac risk, their ability to control it, and consequently to improve their lifestyle and reduce heart disease. Education and behavior modification are solutions to improving mortality and morbidity from heart disease in the USA. As we move into the next century it will be key to teach women about their risks for the number one killer.
Lasik Eye Surgery Cost and Prices Are you looking how much Lasik Eye Surgery Cost?
There have always been concerns about LASIK because of its tendency to induce higher-order aberrations. The advancement of the LASIK technology has helped reduce the risk of clinically significant visual impairment after surgery. There is a correlation between pupil size and aberrations. Effectively, the larger the pupil size, the greater the risk of aberrations. This correlation is the result of the irregularity between the untouched part of the cornea and the reshaped part. Daytime post-lasik vision is optimal, since the pupil is smaller than the LASIK flap. But at night, the pupil may expand such that light passes through the edge of the LASIK flap into the pupil which gives rise to many aberrations, including the appearance of halos surrounding sources of light. There are other currently unknown factors in addition to pupil size that also may lead to higher order aberrations
Food Borne Illness Prevention Most of us have experienced the characteristic symptoms of diarrhea, nausea, cramping, and vomiting that prompt us to say, “It must be something I ate.” The number of cases of food poisoning in the United States has been growing (there are three millions of cases per year), which has prompted the Food and Drug Administration to make prevention of food contamination a high priority. Deaths in Pacific Northwest in 1994 attributed to consumption of Jack-in-the-Box hamburgers contaminated with Escherichia coli, a bacterial agent, increased people’s fears about the overall safety of meat, poultry and seafood.
Treatment of heart failure due to systolic dysfunction A. Treatment of the underlying cardiac disease
Hypertension is the primary cause of HF in many patients.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta
blockers, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are
the preferred antihypertensive agents because they improve
survival in HF. Beta blockers can also provide anginal relief
in ischemic heart disease and rate control in with atrial
Renovascular disease. Testing for renovascular disease is
indicated if there is severe or refractory hypertension, a
sudden rise in blood pressure, or repeated episodes of flash
Ischemic heart disease. Coronary atherosclerosis is the
most common cause of cardiomyopathy, comprising 50 to
75 percent of patients with HF.
a. All patients with documented ischemic heart disease
should be treated medically for relief of angina and with
risk factor reduction, such as control of serum lipids.
b. Myocardial revascularization with angioplasty or bypass
surgery may improve exercise capacity and prognosis in
patients with hibernating myocardium. Revascularization
should also be considered for repeated episodes of acute
left ventricular dysfunction and flash pulmonary edema.
Valvular disease is the primary cause of HF 10 to 12 percent.
Other causes of heart failure: Alcohol abuse, cocaine
abuse, obstructive sleep apnea, nutritional deficiencies,
myocarditis, hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, thyroid disease,
and rheumatologic disorders such as systemic lupus