Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Hiatus Hernia Treatment The term hiatus hernia describes diaphragmatic hernia or weakness in the diaphragm, the horizontal muscular wall separating the organs of the chest from the organs of the abdomen. A hernia is an abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through an opening. A hiatus, or opening, permits the esophagus to carry food from the mouth to the stomach. Blood vessels and nerves also pass through the diaphragm. The diaphragm is an important group of muscles for contracting and expanding the lungs, forcing air in and out of the lung tissues.
Coronary Artery Disease Treatment Guidelines It can be difficult to determine whether chest pain is caused by angina. Whenever a person develops symptoms that could be angina, a complete medical evaluation is needed to determine whether coronary artery disease is present and, if so, how severe it is (see also chapter 7). The individual's medical history and descriptions of the pain, actions that cause the pain, and actions that make it better may raise a doctor's suspicion of coronary artery disease, but these factors are not sufficient for actual diagnosis. Likewise, physical examination and blood tests may show that the patient is at risk, but cannot actually diagnose the condition.
An electrocardiogram may or may not show changes of cardiac ischemia. An exercise electrocardiogram, a ''stress test'' done while a person is performing a specific amount of exercise, is more likely to demonstrate whether coronary disease is present. A particular change in the electrocardiogram during exercise can demonstrate that coronary artery disease is present. Even an exercise electrocardiogram is not 100 percent reliable in diagnosing coronary artery disease.
Psoriasis Treatment Guidelines and Pictures Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells. Psoriasis is not contagious. There are five types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular and erythrodermic. The most common form, plaque psoriasis, is commonly seen as red and white hues of scaly patches appearing on the top first layer of the epidermis (skin). Some patients, though, have no dermatological symptoms. Here is some guidelines for Psoriasis Treatment
Cold Sore Treatment Over the Counter Are you looking for cold sore treatment over the counter?A cold sore and a canker sore can come from the same herpes simplex virus, but they aren't the same thing. A cold sore is a small- to medium-size blister that appears on or around the mouth area. Cold sores can also appear in the nose. A canker sore is a virus-induced blister that is on the inside of the mouth. It usually takes 2 days to 2 weeks to heal. A cold sore, besides being red and painful, can also leak fluid.
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When youâ€™re deciding which formula is right for your baby, you will need to take several factors into consideration. Think about her health and dietary needs, her age, and the cost and preparation time of different formula milks. Our guide to formula milks will help you to choose the right type for your baby.
Stomach Cancer Symptoms and Signs The stomach is a hollow organ in the upper abdomen, under the ribs.
It's part of the digestive system. Food moves from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach. In the stomach, the food becomes liquid. Muscles in the stomach wall push the liquid into the small intestine.
Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that make up tissues. Tissues make up the organs of the body.
Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place.
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There have always been concerns about LASIK because of its tendency to induce higher-order aberrations. The advancement of the LASIK technology has helped reduce the risk of clinically significant visual impairment after surgery. There is a correlation between pupil size and aberrations. Effectively, the larger the pupil size, the greater the risk of aberrations. This correlation is the result of the irregularity between the untouched part of the cornea and the reshaped part. Daytime post-lasik vision is optimal, since the pupil is smaller than the LASIK flap. But at night, the pupil may expand such that light passes through the edge of the LASIK flap into the pupil which gives rise to many aberrations, including the appearance of halos surrounding sources of light. There are other currently unknown factors in addition to pupil size that also may lead to higher order aberrations
What is Vitamin C Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, is the most wily consumed nutritional supplement. It is essential to the formation of collagen, a protein that is used to form all the connective tissues of your body. It is required in the breakdown and absorption of some amino acids, other minerals (such as iron), and the formation of some hormones. It may also help the immune system prevent infections. As an antioxidant it may play a role in prevention of atherosclerosis and some forms of cancer.
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Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Diabetes mellitus type 1 (Type 1 diabetes, IDDM, or, formerly, juvenile diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.The subsequent lack of insulin leads to increased blood and urine glucose. The classical symptoms are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger), and weight loss.
Health effects of fat Fats are an essential part of every cell. They maintain the health of the skin an hair; provide insulation and protection for body organs;help transport and absorb vitamins A, D, E, and K; and provide a concentrated source of energy. However, in excess, fats are associated with several health conditions.
Health studies usually report the health risks associated with dietary fat within the context of total intake of fat and saturated fat. Although a diet high in total fat is usually linked closely with a diet high in saturated fat and vice versa, a diet may be low in one type of fat and high in the other. This can then alter the risks of developing various health conditions.
Treacher Collins Syndrome Pictures Treacher–Collins syndrome (TCS), also known as Treacher-Collins–Franceschetti syndrome, or mandibulofacial dysostosis is a rare autosomal dominant congenital disorder characterized by craniofacial deformities, such as absent cheekbones.Treacher-Collins syndrome is found in about 1 in 10,000 births. In a number of cases a genetic origin is described.
This gene controls development of the bones and other structures of the head and neck. When the gene is faulty, the facial bones don't develop as they should in the womb and a baby is born with characteristic facial features. The extent of these abnormalities varies from person to person, but they often cause problems with hearing, breathing and eating.