Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Causes of muscular dystrophy Muscular dystrophy (abbreviated MD) refers to a group of hereditary and non-hereditary, muscle diseases that weakens the musculoskeletal system and hampers locomotion. Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue. What are causes of muscular dystrophy?
In the 1860s, descriptions of boys who grew progressively weaker, lost the ability to walk, and died at an early age became more prominent in medical journals. In the following decade, French neurologist Guillaume Duchenne gave a comprehensive account of 13 boys with the most common and severe form of the disease (which now carries his name — Duchenne muscular dystrophy).
Stages and Effects of Pyrexia and Hyperpyrexia A pyrexia is a body temperature between 37.60 and 400C and hyperpyrexia is a temperature > 400C. They are conditions in which the thermoregulatory mechanisms are intact but the body temperature is high. Infection s the most common cause of pyrexia and sepsis of hyperpyrexia but there are other causes. A number of drugs have been associated with pyrexia, e.g. diuretics, antiseizure therapy, analgesics, antiarrhythmics and antibiotics. Other causes of pyrexia include neoplasm, surgery, acute myocardial infarctions, heart failure, haemolysis (seen in reactions to blood transfusions) and hyperthyroidism.
Paleo Diet Recipes and Food List The modern dietary regimen known as the Paleolithic diet (abbreviated paleo diet or paleodiet), also popularly referred to as the caveman diet, Stone Age diet and hunter-gatherer diet, is a nutritional plan based on the presumed ancient diet of wild plants and animals that various hominid species habitually consumed during the Paleolithic era—a period of about 2.5 million years duration that ended around 10,000 years ago with the development of agriculture. In common usage, such terms as the "Paleolithic diet" also refer to the actual ancestral human diet. Centered on commonly available modern foods, the "contemporary" Paleolithic diet consists mainly of grass-fed pasture raised meats, fish, vegetables, fruit, roots, and nuts, and excludes grains, legumes, dairy products, salt, refined sugar, and processed oils.
What is holoprosencephaly definition Are you looking for What is holoprosencephaly definition? Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a birth defect in which the brain fails to form properly. The most severe form is Alobar Holoprosencephaly, in which the brain does not divide into two hemispheres. These children often have significant facial malformations as well. In Semilobar Holoprosencephaly, the brain is divided in the back but not in the front; in Lobar Holoprosencephaly, the hemispheres are divided but are fused in some areas; and in cases with Middle Interhemispheric Variant, the brain is not well divided in the middle. Mental retardation, epilepsy, microcephaly, hydrocephaly, and malformations in other organs are all associated with holoprosencephaly.
Chrons disease symptoms in children Are you looking for chrons disease symptoms in children? Crohn's disease, also known as regional enteritis, is an inflammatory disease of the intestines that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus, causing a wide variety of symptoms. It primarily causes abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be bloody if inflammation is at its worst), vomiting, or weight loss, but may also cause complications outside the gastrointestinal tract such as skin rashes, arthritis, inflammation of the eye, tiredness, and lack of concentration.
Ovarian Cancer Staging and Treatment Are you looking for article about ovarian cancer staging and treatment? Here is good stuff about ovarian cancer staging and treatment.
The FIGO staging classification scheme for ovarian cancer is outlined in the box, page 42. The staging of advanced disease (spread throughout the abdomen) may be obvious to most physicians, but it is important for a surgeon to be meticulous in the staging of early ovarian cancer. In one study it was found that one third of patients referred with stage I or stage II disease were actually found to have stage III disease when the appropriate staging operation was performed. Similar results have been reported by other researchers.
Dash Diet Recipes Meal Plans The DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) is a diet promoted by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (part of the NIH, a United States government organization) to control hypertension. The first study was utilized by its inital founder, Nick Dash, in 2004 while he was serving in the Armed Forces. Nick provided the Government with the study which was later incorporated in 2008. The Dash diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy foods; includes meat, fish, poultry, nuts and beans; and is limited in sugar-sweetened foods and beverages, red meat, and added fats. In addition to its effect on blood pressure, it is considered a well-balanced approach to eating for the general public. It is now recommended by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) as an ideal eating plan for all Americans.
Immunization for children and schedule You can see the diseases, vaccine-preventable diseases in this column and the number of cases reported prior to routine immunization and then the number of cases reported last year in this country. You’ll see a real dramatic decline in these vaccine-preventable diseases. Between 95 and 100% decline and this is due to routine immunization against these diseases. So this is a very dramatic success story, and because of this - this is from the MMWR published by the CDC - the top public health achievement of this century in this country is routine vaccination. So you can be assured that this is something that will be on the Boards because it’s been such a tremendous success, a tremendous achievement and it is very important.
Guidelines For Exercise In the Heat Guidelines for exercising in heat and humidity have been developed for road races, but these can be applied to any strenuous physical activity performed outdoors during warm weather. Ambient conditions are considered safe when the temperature is below 70º F and the humidity is below 60%. People who are sensitive to heat and humidity should reconsider exercising when the temperature is greater than 80ºF or the humidity is more than 60%. People who are in these conditions, but they should be aware of the potential hazards and take precautions to prevent heat illness.
The keys to exercising without incident in hot weather are to acclimate to the heat and maintain the body's normal fluid level. The major consequence of dehydration (excessive fluid loss) is a reduction in blood volume. This results in sluggish circulation that decrease the delivery of oxygen to the exercising muscles. Second, lowered blood volume results in less blood that can be sent to the skin to remove the heat generated by exercise. If too much of the blood temperature will rise, leading to to heat-stress illness. Hat illness is a serious problem that can be avoided by following a few guidelines deigned to preserve the body's fluid level.
Prostate Cancer Symptoms in Men What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer is a malignant (cancerous) tumor (growth) that consists of cells from the prostate gland. Generally, the tumor usually grows slowly and remains confined to the gland for many years. During this time, the tumor produces little or no symptoms or outward signs (abnormalities on physical examination).
Natural Head Lice Treatment Are you looking for natural head lice treatment? here is some good stuff about natural head lice treatment. Head lice are tiny wingless insects that are grey-brown in colour. They are the size of a pinhead when they hatch and 3mm long (the size of a sesame seed) when fully grown. Head lice cannot fly, jump or swim. They are spread by head-to-head contact and climb from the hair of an infected person to the hair of someone else.
Cochlear Implant Cost Are you looking for Cochlear Implant Cost? A cochlear implant (CI) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf or severely hard of hearing. The cochlear implant is often referred to as a bionic ear.
As of April 2009, approximately 188,000 people worldwide had received cochlear implants; in the United States, about 40,000 adults and over 30,000 children are recipients. The vast majority are in developed countries due to the high cost of the device, surgery and post-implantation therapy. A small but growing segment of recipients have bilateral implants (one implant in each cochlea).
Over the counter ringworm treatment for kids Are you looking for over the counter ringworm treatment for kids? What will you do if you see red itchy patches on your body? It may be a case of ring worm infection. It may sound bad, but it can be cured easily with over-the-counter ringworm treatment.
Ringworm is a common skin infection caused by a fungus. The fungi feeds on the dead cells of skin and hair causing a ring of irritated itchy skin that looks like a worm. This may cause a rash and becomes sore. It may appear as scalp ring worm, body ringworm, face ring worm or groin ringworm.