Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buergerís disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buergerís disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Prescription diet pills list and review Prescription diet pills aren't for the person who wants to shed a few pounds to fit into a holiday party dress or tuxedo. Only people who are "obese" (those who are 30 percent over their ideal weight, or have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or more - see National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute: Healthy Weight to calculate your BMI) or who have a history of high blood pressure or diabetes are good candidates for prescription diet medications, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Pancreatitis Symptoms and Treatment Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that can occur in two very different forms. Acute pancreatitis is sudden while chronic pancreatitis "is characterized by recurring or persistent abdominal pain with or without steatorrhea or diabetes mellitus.
Jenny Craig Weight Lose Program Reviews
Jenny Craig isn't a Janie-come-lately to the diet field. The program began in 1983 in Australia and started U.S. operations in 1985.
The Jenny Craig method is a three-level food-mind-body plan to help people lose weight and keep it off.
Heart Failure Physical Examination Your medical history includes anything about your past and present health-conditions you used to have or conditions you have now. Tell your doctor about medical problems of any type, including any surgery that you have had. When giving your doctor your medical history, be complete and detailed in your descriptions. Even if an illness is completely gone or does not seem important to you, knowing about that problem may help your doctor diagnose heart failure. Also, knowing all of your past and present medical problems will help your doctor decide the best way to care for your condition.
Best cold medicine for adult What is the Best cold medicine for adult?
Cold medicine can be a help and a hindrance in our lives when we are sick. Though it won't cure your cold or flu, it can improve your symptoms. But it also can have side effects. Also, which one do you choose? It can be quite confusing. Here you will find out about different cold medicines, how they work, examples of different products in each category and what they are used for.
Immunization for children and schedule You can see the diseases, vaccine-preventable diseases in this column and the number of cases reported prior to routine immunization and then the number of cases reported last year in this country. Youíll see a real dramatic decline in these vaccine-preventable diseases. Between 95 and 100% decline and this is due to routine immunization against these diseases. So this is a very dramatic success story, and because of this - this is from the MMWR published by the CDC - the top public health achievement of this century in this country is routine vaccination. So you can be assured that this is something that will be on the Boards because itís been such a tremendous success, a tremendous achievement and it is very important.
Women and Cardiovascular Disease Heart disease is the number one killer of both men and women. In the United States, heart attacks kill about 240,000 women a year; stroke takes another 88,000 womenís lives. That compares with about 43,000 women who die annually from breast cancer. In fact, nearly twice as many women die of CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) than all cancers combined.
While men do have more heart attacks and have them earlier in life, women have a much lower chance of surviving a heart attack. We understand the mechanism that cause CVD in men from years of male-oriented research. But only within the last decade have we moved toward a better understanding of how CVD manifests itself in women.
Symptoms of Gallbladder Dysfunction Are you looking for symptoms of gallbladder dysfunction? What is important to say when it comes to gallbladder symptoms is that people can be quite unaware that their digestion problems actually come from their gallbladder. The reason for this is that gallbladder symptoms are closely related to other signs of digestion disorders. So keep in mind that all the symptoms you find here may be related not only to your gallbladder but to other organs as well. Sometimes only one of these symptoms is enough to show you that something is wrong with your gallbladder. So if you experience one of the symptoms listed below (or more of them), visit your doctor.
In vertebrates the gallbladder (cholecyst, gall bladder, Biliary Vesicle) is a small organ that aids mainly in fat digestion and concentrates bile produced by the liver. In humans the loss of the gallbladder is usually easily tolerated.
Psoriasis Symptoms and Treatment Psoriasis is common, affecting 1.5-2.0% of the population. It affects all ages, with bimodal peaks of incidence at ages 20-30 and 50-60 years. Plaque-type psoriasis is easily identified by its discrete round orange-red plaques with silver scale on the scalp, elbows, knees, or trunk. When psoriasis appears as intertriginous, guttate, or nail-limited psoriasis, the diagnosis can be challenging.
Etiology. Psoriasis exhibits abnormalities of epidermal proliferation and migration of inflammatory cells, resulting in accelerated epidermal turnover time. Psoriasis, particularly extensive psoriasis, has a strong genetic component. Exacerbants of psoriasis include stress, probably alcohol, many drugs, infection, and steroids.
Beyonce diet recipes and plan Are you looking for beyonce diet recipes and plan?
Beyonce Diet is actually a nickname born out of extreme dieting measures Beyonce Knowles used to lose a lot of weight in under two weeks, for a movie role. But what many people donít know is that unlike janet jackson diet or jennifer hudson weight loss the she does not recommend the diet strategy she used as a means to lose weight long-term.
Asthma Remedies at Home
Take a good quality multivitamin daily, plus a multimineral containing 200
- 400 mg of magnesium, and 200 mcg of selenium, because low levels leave you
more at risk from an attack.
Vitamin C in an ascorbate form; 1g three times a day taken with meals
helps opne the airways.
Take vitamin B6 (150 mg), B12 (1,000 - 2,000 mcg a day), as well as a B
complex. Asthma medication depletes B vitamins, particularly in people who are
sensitive to sulphates.
The enzyme bromelain taken 1,000 - 4,000 mcu a day helps to reduce mucous
production and ease breathing.
Take 60 mg a day of natural source beta carotene if you suffer from
exercise induced asthma.
The herb ginkgo biloba 120 - 240 mg standardised extract, or 3 - 4 ml of
tincture, taken daily has been shown to improve circulation and decrease
Oralmat is an extract or rye grass in a liquid formula that has
been shown to support healthy respiratory function by strengthening defences
against toxins in the lungs. An Australian study in mild to moderate
asthamatics showed considerable lessening of symptoms, for some after only a
few days of use. Three drops should be placed under the tongue three times
daily (hold for 30 seconds or longer). Children should use one drop instead.
Bronchial dilating herbs such as euphorbia and grindelia help open the
airways. Take 15 drops of each herb three times daily in juice.
Inhalants Cause Allergy A large number of substances reach the body through breathing or inhalation. The fact that they are introduced through inhalation does not necessarily indicate that the symptoms will be only respiratory; for example, inhaled substances can produce hives, and conversely foods may cause asthma. Air-borne pollen and molds produce seasonal hay fever. house dust is a very important inhalant antigen. animal hairs are frequent offenders, and for this reason allergic patients should avoid contact with or exposure to animals regardless as to whether they are skin sensitive to their. Contact with horses, especially riding behind a horse, or using horse blankets or being in the company of people who wear riding habits may produce severe allergic symptoms.
Aneurysm Symptoms and Treatment An aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel, usually an artery, due to a weakness in the vessel wall, particularly in the elastic, muscular middle layer of the artery wall. An artery has three layers: the intima, which is the smooth inner layer; the media, or middle layer; and the adventitia, which is the tough outer layer. A true aneurysm involves all three layers, whereas a false aneurysm is a disruption or clot in one or two of the layers, causing a bulge in the vessel. A dissecting aneurysm occurs when blood separates the layers, thereby creating an extra channel, sometimes extending the full length of the artery, through which blood flow is diverted from the organs or tissues served by the blood vessel. This dangerous condition can develop in a matter of hours a day.
The main danger of most untreated aneurysm is that they may rupture, causing death due to loss of blood. Even if death does not occur, blood loss may so decrease blood flow to the heart that it cannot work properly.