Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Drug Classification Drugs are commonly classified according to the physiological effect they have. Categories include stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, narcotics, and inhalants. Two other types are also important. First, designer drugs are manufactured to mimic the effects if drugs found in the previously mentioned categories. Designer drugs usually are not illegal because their chemical formula has been altered from the original drug. The other drug, marijuana, is difficult to classify but is usually included as a hallucinogen. Depending on the dose, marijuana can mimic a variety of substances found in other categories.
Lower Back Pain Treatment at Home What is the treatment for low back pain?
So, how is low back pain treated? Well, as described above, the treatment very much depends on the precise cause of the low back pain. Moreover, each patient must be individually evaluated and managed in the context of the underlying background health status and activity level.
The Scope of Noise Exposure Noise is especially prevalent in the manufacturing industries. The US
Department of Labor has estimated that 19.3% of the workers in manufacturing and
utilities are exposed to daily average noise level of 90 dBA an above, 34.4% are
exposed to levels above 85 dBA, and 53.1% to levels above 80 dBA.
These estimates should be fairly typical of the percentage of workers exposed
to hazardous level of noise in other nations. The levels are likely to be
somewhat higher in less developed nations, where engineering controls are not
used as widely, and somewhat lower in nations with stronger noise control
programmes, such as Scandinavian Country and Germany.
Red Blood Cell Indices The red cell indices give a valuable specific overview of anaemias (low RBC / Hb) and polycythaemias
(high RBC / Hb) whilst in parallel being able to part differentiate alcohol use, kidney problems, liver
problems, sickle cell and thalassemia
Red Blood Cell Number
The red blood cells or erythrocytes primarily transport oxygen and some nutrients to organs and tissues.
Hence the symptoms of lack of breath, dizziness and tiredness when these cells are low in number. The
process of creating RBCs is called erythropoiesis and this is induced by reduced oxygen (hypoxia) supply
to the kidneys which causes the release of the hormone erythropoietin (EPO). The RBC
will last around 12 weeks or 120 days; this has an advantage and a disadvantage.
It is a great long term marker but will take longer than most tests to see if
the intervention is correct.
Miranda Kerr Diet Plan and Exercise Supermodel and new mum Miranda Kerr has revealed how she maintains her slender figure and glowing vitality.
Writing on her KoraOrganics blog, the Victoria's Secret model and mother of two-month old Flynn, attributes her perfect figure to the Blood Type diet and a healthy dose of supplements to maximise her daily nutrition intake.
Kegel Exercises for Women, Benefits and Instruction Are you looking for instruction and benefits Kegel Exercises for Women? A pelvic floor exercise, more commonly called a Kegel exercise (named after Dr. Arnold Kegel), consists of contracting and relaxing the muscles that form part of the pelvic floor, which are now sometimes colloquially referred to as the "Kegel muscles". Several tools exist to help with these exercises, though many are ineffective. Exercises are usually done to reduce urinary incontinence and aid with childbirth in women, and reduce premature ejaculatory occurrences in men, as well as increase the size and intensity of erections.
Exactly who does smoking affect baby Cigarette smoking produces a number of abnormalities in a mother’s body. First, cyanide (a strong poison) is produced from smoking. This by product from smoking goes directly to your tissue and to the tissue of your baby, producing hypoxia (lack of oxygen) in the individual cell. In addition to this, nicotine causes constriction of the boob vessels of your body, decreasing the amount of blood flowing through the placenta and adding to the hypoxia produced by the cyanide.
Paleo Diet Recipes and Food List The modern dietary regimen known as the Paleolithic diet (abbreviated paleo diet or paleodiet), also popularly referred to as the caveman diet, Stone Age diet and hunter-gatherer diet, is a nutritional plan based on the presumed ancient diet of wild plants and animals that various hominid species habitually consumed during the Paleolithic era—a period of about 2.5 million years duration that ended around 10,000 years ago with the development of agriculture. In common usage, such terms as the "Paleolithic diet" also refer to the actual ancestral human diet. Centered on commonly available modern foods, the "contemporary" Paleolithic diet consists mainly of grass-fed pasture raised meats, fish, vegetables, fruit, roots, and nuts, and excludes grains, legumes, dairy products, salt, refined sugar, and processed oils.
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Many of the bacteria and viruses that cause meningitis are fairly common and associated with other routine illnesses. Bacteria and viruses that infect the skin, urinary system, gastrointestinal or respiratory tract can spread by the bloodstream to the meninges through cerebrospinal fluid, the fluid that circulates in and around the spinal cord.
Brain tumour symptoms in adults Are you looking for brain tumour symptoms in adults? More than 18,000 new cases of primary brain tumors are treated each year in the United States. Metastases are even more frequent and contribute considerably to suffering and death from systemic cancer. The diversity of brain tumors makes it important to attend to what is characteristic about each histologic type. Biologic specificity guides therapy to some extent now, and will be the key to successful treatment in the future.
Arrhythmias Treatment and Types A disturbance in the rhythm of the heart is termed arrhythmia and can range from a mild “skipped beat” to a life-threatening failure to pump. The later is called ventricular fibrillation, and it is the most common cause of cardiac arrest, in which the heart suddenly stops beating. Death can follow in minutes unless medical help is provided immediately. People who have had a heart attack or who are elderly are at a much higher risk of developing a life-threatening arrhythmia.
In ventricular fibrillation, the heart’s electrical activity becomes disordered. As a result, the heart’s lower (pumping) chambers rapidly contract in an unsynchronized way. In effect, the ventricles flutter rather than beat, and the heart pumps little or no blood. Symptoms may include palpitations, lightheadedness, chest discomfort, shortness of breath, or loss of consciousness. If a more normal rhythm is not restored within three to five minutes, the patient will suffer brain and heart damage and will die.
Pancreatitis Symptoms and Treatment Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that can occur in two very different forms. Acute pancreatitis is sudden while chronic pancreatitis "is characterized by recurring or persistent abdominal pain with or without steatorrhea or diabetes mellitus.
Furosemide Side Effects and Dosage Furosemide is a loop diuretic (water pill) that prevents your body from absorbing too much salt, allowing the salt to instead be passed in your urine. Furosemide treats fluid retention in people with congestive heart failure, liver disease, or a kidney disorder such as nephrotic syndrome. This medication is also used to treat high blood pressure. Here is some stuff about Furosemide Side Effects and Dosage.