Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Listeria monocytogenes prevention Are you looking for listeria monocytogenes prevention? Listeria monocytogenes is an important bacterial pathogen in neonates, immunosuppressed patients, elderly adults, pregnant women, and occasionally, previously healthy individuals. The importance of underlying diseases was illustrated in a series of 165 adults with culture-proven Listeria infection: 69 percent of cases in nonpregnant adults occurred in patients with cancer, AIDS, organ transplant recipients, or corticosteroid therapy
Guidelines For Exercise In the Heat Guidelines for exercising in heat and humidity have been developed for road races, but these can be applied to any strenuous physical activity performed outdoors during warm weather. Ambient conditions are considered safe when the temperature is below 70º F and the humidity is below 60%. People who are sensitive to heat and humidity should reconsider exercising when the temperature is greater than 80ºF or the humidity is more than 60%. People who are in these conditions, but they should be aware of the potential hazards and take precautions to prevent heat illness.
The keys to exercising without incident in hot weather are to acclimate to the heat and maintain the body's normal fluid level. The major consequence of dehydration (excessive fluid loss) is a reduction in blood volume. This results in sluggish circulation that decrease the delivery of oxygen to the exercising muscles. Second, lowered blood volume results in less blood that can be sent to the skin to remove the heat generated by exercise. If too much of the blood temperature will rise, leading to to heat-stress illness. Hat illness is a serious problem that can be avoided by following a few guidelines deigned to preserve the body's fluid level.
Actinic Keratosis Pictures, Causes and Treatment Actinic keratosis (senile or solar keratosis) is the most common precancerous dermatosis.
Single or multiple lesions develop on areas exposed to the sun, such as the face, the backs of
the hands, the forearms, the neck, and balding scalp. Actinic cheilitis denotes scaly or
crusted patches of precancer on the vermilion of the lips. In actinic keratosis, lesions are
round or irregularly shaped, erythematous or tan plaques with an adherent scaly or rough
surface. They range in size from several millimeters to 1 cm or more.
Locally invasive lesions
have been reported to develop in 12 percent of patients with actinic keratoses. These lesions
result in squamous cell carcinomas that occasionally metastasize [see Malignant Epithelial
Tumors, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, below].1,14 Signs that an actinic keratosis has become
malignant are elevation, ulceration or inflammation, and recent enlargement, usually to a
diameter greater than 1 cm.
Seizure Diagnosis and Treatment Nonfebrile seizures occur at all ages. The term
"seizure" designates a clinical event that represents dysfunction of
the central nervous system (CNS) and may signal a serious underlying
abnormality; however, more often in children the seizures result from a
transient disturbance of brain function.
Anemia Symptoms in Women and Pregnancy Anemia is common among women, in both the obstetric and the primary care settings. It is not a disease in and of itself, but it indicates the presence of an underlying disorder, such as an occult malignancy, nutritional deficiency, or bleeding, that must be sought out and effectively treated.
Anemia is a decline in erythrocyte mass from any etiology and is generally defined as a hematocrit or hemoglobin value that is two standard deviations below the mean for a given population. Specifically, in women, a hemoglobin value less than 12 g/dL (or less than approximately 11 g/dL in pregnancy) is generally considered consistent with anemia. The lowered norms in pregnancy occur because of a "physiological anemia" as a result of the disparate rise in the plasma and erythrocyte volumes. The norms for hemoglobin among those of African descent are 1 g/dL lower.
Causes of Asthma and Diet for Treatment Asthma is a disease that affects the bronchial tubes leading to our
lungs, resulting in periods of wheezing and shortness of breath. Not only has
the number of asthma sufferers escalated worldwide, but recent research has
indicated that more than 10% of South Africans are affected and that it is
definitely the most common of the chronic childhood illnesses. Pollution from
traffic fumes is without doubt a contributing factor, as during school holidays
incidences of attacks are reduced as there is less traffic.
Other atmospheric pollutants such as pollen, cigarette smoke and car exhaust
fumes can all be triggers. The incidence of occupational asthma is also high in
this country, caused by contact with airborne particles e.g. flour, soap powder
and paint. Even stressful situations and chronic exhaustion can trigger an
attack as can eating foods to which you have a sensitivity (such as sulphur
dioxide, used as a preservative in many dried fruit). You can also suffer
exercise-induced asthma. People who take paracetamol every day are twice as
likely to suffer asthma, and if you take it twice weekly you are 80% more likely
to be affected.
How to Keep Your Body Warm in Cold Weather Dilemma:
You love to go hiking in the snowy mountains during wintertime, but you
petite frame gets cold easily, and you're always shivering. You need a quick
remedy for the chills that doesn't require you to carry a backpack full of extra
The Japanese custom isn't just useful for showing respect. It also helps you
stay warm. Give the imaginary honorable person before you ten deep bows and you
will feel warm all over, physically and in spirit.
Why this works:
Though almost any kind of movement when you're cold will hellp warm your
body, the deep bowing gesture is particularly effective in stimulating your
arteries and nerves to increase blood circulation. There is a thick artery that
runs right through your solar plexus area, the part that contracts and relaxes
when you bow.
Cocaine Effects on The Brain and Body At one time cocaine was considered the drug of upper-class America. Unfortunately, the use of cocaine and its derivative, crack, is now epidemic. It is estimated that 25 to 30 million people have experimented with cocaine in the United States. Approximately 5 million people use the drug regularly. Among young adults, 6,7% have tried crack and 40% tried cocaine. In a recent survey of high school senior, 1 in 18 admitted to trying crack and 14% used cocaine in other forms.
A powerful stimulant, cocaine is derived from the leaves of the South American coca shrub and ground into a crystalline powder. The most common methods of sung the drug are either snorting it, liquefying it and then injecting it, or freebasing (smoking). When snorted, the white powder is sniffed up through the nose. The most potent and expensive method of cocaine use is freebasing. The drug is usually smoked in a water pipe because this provides faster absorption into the bloodstream.
Smoking effects for reproduction of women In all of its dimensions the reproductive process is impaired by the use of tobacco, particularly cigarette smoking. Problems can be found in association with infertility, problem pregnancy, breastfeeding, and the health of the new born.
Macrocytic Anemia Causes and Treatment Anemias that are associated with macrocytosis (a mean corpuscular volume of >100 fL) include those from liver disease, alcoholism, hypothyroidism, certain drug exposures, megaloblastic anemia, myelodysplasias, preleukemia, or those with marked reticulocytosis due to the larger size of the young erythrocytes.
Shin Splints Treatment and Prevention Are you looking for shin splints treatment and prevention? here is some good resources about shin splints treatment and prevention. Shin splints are injuries to the front of the outer leg. While the exact injury is not known, shin splints seem to result from inflammation due to injury of the tendon (posterior peroneal tendon) and adjacent tissues in the front of the outer leg. Shin splints are a member of a group of injuries called "overuse injuries." Shin splints occur most commonly in runners or aggressive walkers.
The risk of shin splints is no reason to give up your morning jog or afternoon aerobics class. Most cases of shin splints can be treated with rest, ice and other self-care measures. Wearing proper footwear and modifying your exercise routine can help prevent shin splints from recurring.
Causes of muscular dystrophy Muscular dystrophy (abbreviated MD) refers to a group of hereditary and non-hereditary, muscle diseases that weakens the musculoskeletal system and hampers locomotion. Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue. What are causes of muscular dystrophy?
In the 1860s, descriptions of boys who grew progressively weaker, lost the ability to walk, and died at an early age became more prominent in medical journals. In the following decade, French neurologist Guillaume Duchenne gave a comprehensive account of 13 boys with the most common and severe form of the disease (which now carries his name — Duchenne muscular dystrophy).
Kidney Failure Symptoms in Men Renal failure or kidney failure (formerly called renal insufficiency) describes a medical condition in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter toxins and waste products from the blood. The two forms are acute (acute kidney injury) and chronic (chronic kidney disease); a number of other diseases or health problems may cause either form of renal failure to occur.
Kidney failure can occur from an acute situation or from chronic problems.
In acute renal failure, kidney function is lost rapidly and can occur from a variety of insults to the body. The list of causes is often categorized based on where the injury has occurred.
Prerenal causes (pre=before + renal=kidney) causes are due to decreased blood supply to the kidney.