Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Dementia stages symptoms Are you looking for dementia stages symptoms? Dementia is a serious loss of cognitive ability in a previously unimpaired person, beyond what might be expected from normal aging. It may be static, the result of a unique global brain injury, or progressive, resulting in long-term decline due to damage or disease in the body. Although dementia is far more common in the geriatric population, it can occur before the age of 65, in which case it is termed "early onset dementia".
Symptoms of dementia can be classified as either reversible or irreversible, depending upon the etiology of the disease. Less than 10% of cases of dementia are due to causes that may presently be reversed with treatment. Causes include many different specific disease processes, in the same way that symptoms of organ dysfunction such as shortness of breath, jaundice, or pain are attributable to many etiologies.
Managing Your Eating Behavior Let’s face it. Eating for health is not easy. It takes knowledge, careful though and analysis, and the ability to put it all together and make the best decisions for your own lifestyle and personal goals within certain budgetary limits. There are no shortcuts, and what is true today may turn out to be false tomorrow. But by paying attention; reading; seeking help from reputable, trained professionals; and planning ahead, you can increase your own nutritional health. The following recommendations will help you improve your nutritional status :
Alchohol Abuse Facts and Effect In primary care outpatients, the
prevalence of alcohol disorders is 16-28%, and the prevalence of drug disorders
is 7-9%. Alcoholism is characterized by continuous or periodic impaired control
over drinking, preoccupation with alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse
consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Substance abuse
is a pattern of misuse during which the patient maintains control. Addiction or
substance dependence, is a pattern of misuse during which the patient has lost
Clinical assessment of alcohol
use and abuse
The amount and frequency of
alcohol use and other drug use in the past month, week, and day should be
evaluated. Determine whether the patient ever consumes five or more drinks at a
time (binge drinking). Previous abuse of alcohol or other drugs should be
What is Graves Disease and Symptoms What Is Graves' Disease? First described by Sir Robert Graves in the early 19th century, Graves' disease is one of the most common of all thyroid problems. It is also the leading cause of hyperthyroidism, a condition in which the thyroid gland produces excessive hormones. Once the disorder has been correctly diagnosed, it is quite easy to treat. In some cases, Graves' disease goes into remission or disappears completely after several months or years. Left untreated, however, it can lead to serious complications -- even death. Although the symptoms can cause discomfort, Graves' disease generally has no long-term adverse health consequences if the patient receives prompt and proper medical care.
Trigeminal neuralgia alternative treatment Are you looking for trigeminal neuralgia alternative treatment? Trigeminal neuralgia is qualified by bursts of face pain. These bursts are frequently activated by a mild touch about the face, or mouth or by eating, talking or brushing one’s teeth. Symptoms may wax and wane over days, weeks or months. The pain exists in the regions connected to the trigeminal nerves: The cheeks, teeth, jaw, lips, gums and less frequently around the forehead or eye. Normally the pain takes place on any one side of the face, but in 5 to 10 % of patients, it can occur on the whole face .The pain may respond well to Tegretol, but the dose needs variation and caution must be observed.
Acne Vulgaris Treatment Acne vulgaris is a polymorphous skin disorder of the sebaceous follicles that begins around the time of puberty and peaks during the teenage years. Prevalence exceeds 85% in teenagers and then declines to about 8% in 25-to 34-year olds and to 3% in 35- to 44-year-olds. More adolescent boys than girls are afflicted.
Dementia Symptoms, Classification and Stages Dementia is defined as syndrome of acquired persistent intellectual impairment with compromised function in multiple spheres of mental activity, such as memory, language, visuospatial skill, emotion or personality and cognition.
Dementia can be classified as either primary or secondary.
What is Asthma Symptoms and Treatment What is asthma? what is asthma symptoms and how treatment for asthma?
When we talk about bronchial hyper-responsiveness, what we are saying is the following: If you take an individual without asthma and you challenge that individual with an asthma provoking substance, methacholine, you can see that no matter how much you increase methacholine, there is no major change in air flow. However, if the individual does have bronchial hyper-responsiveness, various degrees of methacholine can cause that air flow to drop 20%. And any drop will tell you the degree of responsiveness and it will then tell you the degree of severity of the disease. This is what we are talking about when we talk about bronchial hyper-responsiveness.
From the point of view of what is bronchial hyper-responsiveness, regardless of the stimulus which is often not an allergy, a number of cells have turned on, which causes a disruption in the bronchial mucosa. It is this disruption that makes the airway hyper-reactive. Well, as I mentioned, despite the fact that you have some homogeneity about inflammation and some homogeneity about bronchial hyperactivity, there is a tremendous heterogeneity in symptoms. Fifteen to 20% will cough. Or they can cough and or wheeze and they can be short of breath, associated with chest tightness. So the disease can reflect itself in many different ways.
Failure patterns of combined modality treatment in lung cancer By C.J. Hoekstra, H. Rijna, E.F. Smit, J.C. van Mourik, P.E. Postmus, A.A. Lammertsma, O.S. Hoekstra 17
Background: Patients with locally advanced non-small cell
lung cancer (NSCLC) may be treated with induction
chemotherapy (IC) followed by surgery with curative
Venereal Warts Symptoms and Treatment Venereal warts (also known as genital warts or condylomas) are caused by a small group of viruses known as human papilloma viruses (HPV). A person becomes infected when an HPV penetrates the skin and mucous membranes of the genitals or anus through sexual contact.
Naegleria fowleri symptoms Are you looking for Naegleria fowleri symptoms? Naegleria is a microscopic ameba (single-celled living organism) that can cause a very rare, but severe, infection of the brain. The ameba is commonly found in warm freshwater (for example, lakes, rivers, and hot springs) and soil. Only one species (type) of Naegleria infects people: Naegleria fowleri.
Allergy In Children The importance of an early diagnosis of allergy cannot be overemphasized. This diagnosis should be made in infancy or early childhood. This involves not only recognition that the condition affecting the child is allergic, but also a serious attempt at discovering the cause of the allergy. In doing this, however, one meets frequently with great deal of resistance by the mother because she does not want to see the child hurt, r because she somehow has a vague suspicion that skin testing endangers the child's health. The mother must understand the importance of such an early diagnosis. She must realize that delay is equivalent to neglect, and that neglect needlessly expose the child to the dangers of complications which may result from an untreated allergy a case of hay fever or case of asthma in a child. After a few years, however, this condition becomes complicated by nasal infection or by bronchitis, or by changes in the tissues of the lungs. These changes become refractory to treatment, so that even if the allergy is discovered, treatment of complications becomes difficult if not impossible. The mother must also understand that skin testing, if properly done, is not dangerous and does not affect the child's physical condition.
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