Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buerger’s disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buerger’s disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
Macrocytic Anemia Causes and Treatment Anemias that are associated with macrocytosis (a mean corpuscular volume of >100 fL) include those from liver disease, alcoholism, hypothyroidism, certain drug exposures, megaloblastic anemia, myelodysplasias, preleukemia, or those with marked reticulocytosis due to the larger size of the young erythrocytes.
Propofol infusion syndrome and other side effects Propofol (INN, marketed as Diprivan by AstraZeneca) is a short-acting, intravenously administered hypnotic agent. Its uses include the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, sedation for mechanically ventilated adults, and procedural sedation. Propofol is also commonly used in veterinary medicine. Propofol is approved for use in more than 50 countries, and generic versions are available.
Glucosamine Side Effects in Humans and Dosage Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. Glucosamine is part of the structure of the polysaccharides chitosan and chitin, which compose the exoskeletons of crustaceans and other arthropods, cell walls in fungi and many higher organisms. Glucosamine is one of the most abundant monosaccharides. It is produced commercially by the hydrolysis of crustacean exoskeletons or, less commonly by fermentation of a grain such as corn or wheat. In the US it is one of the most common non-vitamin, non-mineral, dietary supplements used by adults.
Hypertension treatment food and nutrients When pressure exerted by blood on the walls of the arteries is greater than normal, blood pressure rises. Usually, blood pressure falls when at rest. It rises in response to strenuous physical activity, stress, or a perceived danger in which the sympathetic nervous system dominates, arteries constrict and more blood is sent to the brain increasing blood pressure. This heightened state of the sympathetic system does not seem to retreat in individuals with hypertension and damage to the heart, kidney, arteries, and other organs becomes inevitable.
Blood pressure is considered high at a reading of 140/90. There are no symptoms of the illness and it is recommended individuals over 40 be checked. Hypertension can be controlled by permanent diet and lifestyle changes; this includes reducing stress, maintaining proper weight (not more than 5 lb overweight), and eating foods containing compounds that reduce blood pressure such as celery, garlic, and fresh fruits and vegetables. Having a home monitor is helpful. Smoking, alcohol, refined sugar, food allergies, and high sodium foods can contribute to hypertension. Some people may need extra calcium to stabilize blood pressure. Some individuals are salt sensitive which cause a rise in their blood pressure. Daily exercises and various stress reduction techniques lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
Candida Symptoms and Treatment Opportunistic infections caused by Candida species have increased substantially over the past 10 to 15 years. National data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that Candida species caused 7.7% of bloodstream infections nationwide from 1985 through 1988.
Seriously ill, immunocompetent patients and severely immunocompromised patients are at particular risk for nosocomial candidal infections. Included in these groups are neonates, patients with various forms of cancer who are leukopenic, and patients who have had major surgery (especially gastrointestinal and pancreatic), severe burns, or bone marrow transplants.
Alternative Therapies for Asthma You probably have heard of several so-called "alternative" therapies for asthma. These are treatments that are not conventional and are usually given by nonmedical people. Most of these "treatments" do not help asthma and are often very expensive. However, people are sometimes tempted to try alternative therapy, which is often advertised by means of testimonials as having great benefit. People always hope that this will provide
a "cure" and allow them to stop their asthma treatments.
It should be stressed that these treatments have no proven benefit when tested in
proper clinical trials, although there may appear to be some improvement at first because
of the "placebo" effect, since suggestion may, for a short time, improve asthma symptoms.
Ephedra diet pills side effects and review Are you looking for Ephedra diet pills side effect and review? Many over-the-counter diet pill manufacturers say their product will help you see miraculous weight loss -- like losing up to 30 pounds in 30 days -- without diet or exercise. Their claims sound too good to be true, and most of them are.
A few pills, especially the newer prescription varieties (such as Meridia and Xenical), have been shown in clinical studies to help dieters shed a few pounds. But the majority of the ads you see on the Internet and TV are for products that are unregulated, untested and unproven.
Health effects of fat Fats are an essential part of every cell. They maintain the health of the skin an hair; provide insulation and protection for body organs;help transport and absorb vitamins A, D, E, and K; and provide a concentrated source of energy. However, in excess, fats are associated with several health conditions.
Health studies usually report the health risks associated with dietary fat within the context of total intake of fat and saturated fat. Although a diet high in total fat is usually linked closely with a diet high in saturated fat and vice versa, a diet may be low in one type of fat and high in the other. This can then alter the risks of developing various health conditions.
Recognizing Anorexia and Bulimia and Treatment Anorexia Nervosa A young woman, competitive and perfectionistic by nature, determines that her weight (and appearance) is unacceptable. She begins to disregard her appetite, and her food consumption virtually ceases. This young man may be seen by her friends as active and intelligent and simply dieting and exercising with an unusual degree of commitment. Eventually, however, they observe that her food consumption has nearly stopped. Her weight loss has continued beyond the point that is pleasing-at least to others. Still, her activity level remains high. When questioned about her weight loss, she says that she still needs to lose more weight.
This person is suffering form medical condition called anorexia nervosa. This self-induced starvation is life-threatening in 5% to 20% of cases. The stunning amount of weight that some anorexic people lose-up to 50% of their body weight-eventually leads to failure of the heart, lungs, and kidneys.
Basic facts on fats Fat, also called lipid, is a compound made by chemically bonding fatty acids to glycerol to form glycerides. When three fatty acids are hooked to glycerol, the fat compound is a triglyceride. Almost 95% of fat stored in the body is triglyceride, with the remaining 5% consisting of other glycerides and cholesterol. Scientific literature usually refers to triglycerides when it discusses fat. The fatty acids that make up triglycerides can be saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated.
Chemically, fats are chains of carbon atoms strung together with hydrogen atoms. If it is a saturated fat, the carbon chain carries all the hydrogen atoms it can . If it is unsaturated, there is room in the carbon chain for more hydrogen. If the chain is monounsaturated, there os room for two hydrogen atoms. If it is polyunsaturated, there is room for four hydrogen atoms. If it is highly polyunsaturated, there is room for many more hydrogen atoms.
What is Morgellons Disease Morgellons (also called Morgellons disease or Morgellons syndrome) is a name that was given in 2002 by stay-at-home-mom Mary Leitao to a proposed condition characterized by a range of cutaneous (skin) symptoms including crawling, biting, and stinging sensations (formication); finding fibers on or under the skin; and persistent skin lesions (e.g., rashes or sores). Most doctors, including dermatologists and psychiatrists, regard Morgellons as a manifestation of known medical conditions, including delusional parasitosis.
Lyme Disease Symptoms and Treatment Lyme disease was first recognized in this country in 1975 along this rural road in the region of Lyme Connecticut. Physicians were facing an epidemic of what was being called juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. But it was through the pioneering work of Dr. Stear, who had been at Yale University, and Stira Malavista where it became very apparent that this was not a disease that was isolated to a joint, but rather involved many other systems in the body with the predilection for the skin, for the heart and the nervous system in addition to the joints. Although Lyme disease was relatively new to the United States, the neurologic manifestations were well recognized in Europe at the turn of the century and had been associated with the bite of the hard-shelled tick of the Ixodes family. But it wasn’t until 1981 that Willie Burgdorfer collected Ixodes from an endemic area of Lyme disease in the United States and isolated the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, which bears his name. In 1983 Stira Malavista established the spirochete etiology of Lyme disease when they cultured the spirochete from the blood of patients and other tissues of patients with acute Lyme disease and showed the sera converted to spirochete protein.
What are the Symptoms of Herpes Herpes simplex virus (HSV) commonly causes infections of the skin and mucous membranes. Sometimes it can cause more serious infections in other parts of the body. HSV is one of the most difficult viruses to control and has plagued mankind for thousands of years.
Herpes simplex is part of a group of other herpes viruses that include human herpes virus 8 (the cause of Kaposi's sarcoma) and herpes zoster (the virus responsible for shingles and chicken pox). There are more than 80 types of herpes viruses. They differ in many ways, but the viruses share certain characteristics, notably the word "herpes," which is derived from a Greek word meaning "to creep." This refers to the unique characteristic pattern of all herpes viruses to "creep along" local nerve pathways to the nerve clusters at the end, where they remain in an inactive state for some indeterminate time.