Gangrene is a term that refers to the death of body tissue due to diminishment or loss of blood supply, leading to nutrient and oxygen deprivation. There are three major types of gangrene: moist, dry, and gas gangrene. Although gangrene usually affects extremities, it can sometimes affect the internal organs.
Moist gangrene is generally caused by a sudden stoppage of blood floe to a body site, usually resulting from burning by heat or by acid, from severe freezing, from a physical accident that destroys the tissues, from keeping a tourniquet in place too long, or from a blood clot or other blockage. The tissue death that results form loss of blood supply is accompanied by decomposition due to bacterial action. The gangrenous rapidly as toxins (poisons) are formed in the affected tissues and absorbed.
Dry gangrene usually occurs gradually and results from a slow, progressive reduction of blood flow in the arteries. There is generally no bacterial decomposition; the tissues simply become dry and shriveled. This type of gangrene occurs only in the extremities. It may occur as a secondary effect of arteriosclerosis in the elderly, of advanced stages of diabetes, or of Buergerís disease (an inflammatory condition tha affects the blood vessels of the limbs, primarily the legs).
Gas gangrene is often caused by infection of a wound by anaerobic (able to live without air) bacteria, which are commonly found in soil. It can follow rapidly after contamination of deep wounds. The bacteria break down tissues, giving off gas and toxic by-products.
Gangrene in an internal organ can be caused by any condition that cut off blood supply to an area. For example, if a loop of intestine is caught in an opening in the abdominal wall, the blood supply to that part of the intestine may be cut off (causing what is called a strangulated hernia), and gangrene may the occur in that section of the tissue. In acute appendicitis, areas of gangrene may occur in the walls of the appendix, with rupture of the appendix through the gangrenous area. In severe cholecystitis (inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones), gangrene can develop in areas where the stones compress the mucous membrane, cutting off the blood supply.
Moist gangrene is characterized by a purplish-red, bruised appearance; by swelling; and, often, by blisters.
Dry gangrene is marked by gradual shrinking of the tissues, which first grow cold and lack a pulse, then turn brown, then black. Usually there is a sharp line of demarcation where the gangrene stops because the unaffected tissue nearby is continuing to receive blood. This type of gangrene is sometimes called mummification of tissue because of the dry, shriveled, and dark appearance.
The initial symptoms of gas gangrene are swelling, paleness of skin, and thin, bloody (but not foul) discharge. The characteristic foul smell comes later in progression of this form of the disorder. It is an acute, painful condition in which the muscles and tissues under the skin become filled with gas and a thin, brownish-black fluid.
Symptoms of gangrene in an internal organ may include pain, tenderness over the organ, and fever.
The appearance of the affected area usually suggests the diagnosis to the physician. Laboratory analysis of a tissue specimen will allow the identification of the ineffective microorganism, which is necessary for selection of an appropriate antibiotic. Areas of gas gangrene may be seen on X-ray.
Treatment of gangrene generally involves cleaning of the area and administration of antibiotics. The effectiveness of antibiotic therapy seems to depend on the time elapsed between injury or infection and the beginning of treatment.
In the case of gangrene caused by deterioration in the blood supply of the elderly or gangrene associated with appendicitis, hernia, diabetes, or Buergerís disease, the treatment begins with the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition.
Preventing gangrene in an open wound begins with cleanliness. All dirt and particles in an open wound should be removed as soon as possible, and the wound should be cleansed with a soap solution and water. Burned skin requires careful, antiseptic handling to avoid infection. Frostbite also is dangerous because freezing impairs the circulation of the skin, making it tender and easily damaged. Frostbitten skin, especially on the fingers, toes, and earlobes, must be handled with great care.
(Chasnoff, Ira J, Jeffrey W. Ellis, Zachary S. Fainman. Family Medical & Health Guide .Publications International, LTD (1991) : 179-181.
What is Heat Stroke Are you looking for What is Heat Stroke? Here is some definition about What is Heat Stroke. Heat-related illnesses, such as heat exhaustion and heatstroke, occur when your body can't keep itself cool. As the air temperature rises, your body stays cool when your sweat evaporates. On hot, humid days, the evaporation of sweat is slowed by the increased moisture in the air. When sweating isn't enough to cool your body, your body temperature rises, and you may become ill.
Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Facts When you hear of cosmetic plastic surgery, what do you think of? A Hollywood star trying to delay the effects of aging? People who want to change the size of their stomachs, breasts, or other body parts because they see it done so easily on TV? Here is some facts about Cosmetic Plastic Surgery
Normal Sleep Patterns Sleep duration and quality vary widely among persons of all age groups. One
person may gain adequate rest with 4 hours of sleep, whereas another requires 10
Stomach Cancer Symptoms and Signs The stomach is a hollow organ in the upper abdomen, under the ribs.
It's part of the digestive system. Food moves from the mouth through the esophagus to the stomach. In the stomach, the food becomes liquid. Muscles in the stomach wall push the liquid into the small intestine.
Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that make up tissues. Tissues make up the organs of the body.
Normally, cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old, they die, and new cells take their place.
Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old or damaged cells do not die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth, polyp, or tumor.
Acute Leukemia Prognosis, Symptoms and Treatment Acute Leukemia is neoplastic disorders characterized by proliferation of immature hematopoietic
precursor cells in the bone marrow, and later in the peripheral blood and
other organs and tissues. If untreated, death usually occurs within six months
of diagnosis. Increase risk is associated with the following:
Tamiflu Side Effects Children Tamiflu side effects in children
New research claims that ďmore than half of children taking Tamiflu to combat swine flu suffer side effects such as nausea, insomnia and nightmares,Ē said The Daily Telegraph. It also said the study suggests that one in five children who took part reported having a neuropsychiatric side effect, such as poor concentration, inability to think clearly, problems sleeping, and feeling dazed or confused.
HPV vaccine for men and side effects Are you looking for HPV vaccine for men and side effects? The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine prevents infection with certain species of human papillomavirus associated with the development of cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers. Two HPV vaccines are currently on the market: Gardasil and Cervarix.
Both vaccines protect against the two HPV types (HPV-16 and HPV-18) that cause 70% of cervical cancers, and cause most HPV-induced genital and head and neck cancers. Gardasil also protects against the two HPV types (HPV-6 and HPV-11) that cause 90% of genital warts. In addition, Gardasil has been shown to prevent potential precursors to anal, vulvar, vaginal, and penile and head and neck cancers. HPV vaccines are expected to protect against HPV induced cancers of these areas as well as HPV induced oral cancers.
Body Odor Causes The primary function of the eccrine sweat glands is to assist in the maintenance of body temperature in response to heat exposure or exercise. Hyperhidrosis may be defined as sweating beyond what is necessary to maintain thermal regulation. It may be primary (idiopathic, essential) or secondary to a number of diseases and prescribed drugs. Hyperhidrosis can be localized or generalized. Regardless of the type or cause of the hyperhidrosis, it is frequently socially embarrassing and occupationally disabling.
What are Water Functions Next to air, water is the substances most necessary for survival. Most everything in the body occurs in a water medium. Although people can live without vitamins and minerals for extended periods, death result within a few day without water.
Water makes up about 60% of the body's weight. Every cell in the body is bathed in water of the exact composition that is best for it. Even tissues that are not thought of as "watery" contain large amounts of water. Fo example, water makes up about 75% of brain and muscle tissues; bone tissue and fat tissue are about 20% water. As a lee the bodies of women. Men have more muscle tissue, and muscle tissue holds more water that fat tissue, which is more prominent in the bodies of women.
Heart Attack Symptoms Warning Signs As the atherosclerotic plaques enlarge, they become cracked and ulcerated. The clotting factors in the blood may treat this ulceration like a cut and form a clot over the plaque, completely blocking the artery. When a branch of a coronary artery becomes totally obstructed, the heart cells that it supplies die, resulting in a heart attack. Heart attack is medically referred to as a myocardial infarction, meaning death of the heart muscle.
Although clot formation over an ulcerated plaque is believed to cause the majority of heart attacks, others are caused when a piece of plaque or clot breaks off, obstructing the artery below the actual site of atherosclerosis. A few may be caused when the diseased artery contracts because of irritation from the plaque. About 1.5 million persons have a heart attack in the United States each year.
Pulmonary Hypoplasia and Congenital Renal Anomalies Caroline May, Anne Greenough
Arch Med Sci 2006; 2, 1: 6-9
The association of pulmonary hypoplasia with bilateral renal agenesis is well
recognised. It is important, however, for clinicians to be aware that pulmonary
hypoplasia does occur with other congenital renal anomalies and worsens the
Atkins diet plan food list Are you looking for atkins diet plan food list? The Atkins diet is great for dieters suffering from hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, and those suffering from diabetes (high blood sugar). When the human body is on an all protein diet, the hunger cravings are less, and the body's conversion of glucose is steadier because it takes the body longer to break down fats and proteins than it takes for sugars and carbs. The consumption of sugar spikes the sugar level up about 20 minutes after eating, while a steak or beef patty would take much longer to digest.
Menopause Definition, Age and Treatment Guidelines Elizabeth K. Stanford, MD
We all know what happens at a certain age to women. It is genetically determined that they stop making estrogen in their ovaries. Thatís why fat people are overweight. Ladies are less likely to get hot flushes and less likely to get hip fractures, and more likely to get endometrial cancer. The follicles stop developing in the gonad at a certain age that is genetically predetermined. And actually before that phase happens, to end ovulation and menstrual cycle regularity and sometimes some psychologic symptoms. Of course the hot flush which occurs in about ĺ of women and it occurs without an aura. It just happens and frequently wakens them from sleep and is very disturbing. So these are the early symptoms of estrogen deficiency. A few years later the target tissues start to atrophy; the vagina and the urethra and the bladder, which are urologically grafted to the urogenital sinus. And since estrogen stimulates collagen synthesis, there is atrophy in the dermis of the skin. Youíve all noticed those vertical lines in the upper lip of women. Thatís a sign of not making enough collagen or dermis.
When estrogen deficiency begins, there is an increased rate of bone resorption, which in about half of white women leads to osteoporosis and if they live long enough then they may develop fractures from this. These fractures start appearing about age 60. There is also an acceleration of cardiovascular disease in women not taking estrogen, and estrogen will retard the acceleration of atherosclerosis. Of course these are the serious problems that are asymptomatic. The osteoporosis and the atherosclerosis. So we donít mention them until the event occurs. You all measure blood pressure and treat hypertension and you make a cholesterol to treat cardiovascular disease, and now there is a move afoot to measure bone mineral density in all white women and Asian women. And now found that even about 30% of blacks have osteoporosis, so this is being reimbursed by Medicare and this is something that you will be doing in the next few years.