Cymothoa exigua is a tiny crustacean that sneaks up on a fish (specifically, a red snapper) and works its way in through the gills. Typical parasite behavior so far.
Then it attaches itself to the base of the fish's tongue, the tongue evidently being the tastiest part of the fish (get it!?). The parasite uses its claws to dig into the tongue and drink the fish's blood--and that's just the beginning
Cymothoa Exigua in Human
It is currently believed that Cymothoa Exigua are not harmful to humans unless picked up alive, in which case they can bite.
A tongue-eating parasite inside the mouth of a red snapper purchased from a London fishmonger recently revolted its buyer and fascinated scientists.
Previously, scientists believed fish infected with the parasite, nicknamed the "tongue louse," existed solely in the Gulf of California. The find in England suggests the parasite's range may be expanding, according to a recent press release issued by a museum in England.
But does the Cymothoa mouth-squatter leave its fishy friend tongueless? Of course not. It does what any crafty parasite would do and replaces the old tongue with its own body.
The fish is actually able to use the parasite just like a normal tongue, only it has to share all the food with its new friend. Yes, the whole foster-tongue thing seems like a pretty nice gesture on the part of ol' Cymothoa until you remember there was nothing wrong with the fish's old tongue in the first place.
Cymothoa Exigua Life cycle
Not much is known about the life cycle of Cymothoa Exigua. It exhibits sexual reproduction. It is likely that juveniles first attach to the gills of a fish and become males. As they mature, they become females, with mating likely occurring on the gills. If there is no female present, within a pair of two males, one male can turn into a female after it grows to 10mm in length. The female then makes its way to the fish's mouth where it uses its front claws to attach to the fish’s tongue.
Thyroid Cancer Symptoms and Treatment hyroid carcinoma is common in all age groups, and it is especially in patients who have received any radiation therapy to the face, neck, or upper chest. It is rarely associated with functional abnormalities. Papillary carcinoma is the most common and least aggressive thyroid malignancy. Pure papillary or mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma represents about 70% of all thyroid cancers. Follicular carcinoma represents about 15% of thyroid malignancies but is more likely to have distant metastases. Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas are classified as differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Medullary thyroid carcinoma represents less than 5% of thyroid cancers and tends to metastasize locally. Of all cases of medullary thyroid cancer, about one-third are sporadic, one-third are familial occurrences, and another third are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type II. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma represents only about 1% of thyroid malignancies. Other malignancies involving the thyroid include lymphomas and metastases (especially melanoma, breast, renal, and bronchogenic carcinomas).
The effect of Monosodium Glutamate The effect of monosodium glutamate on the apoptosis
of rat thymocytes and Bcl-2 protein expression
Voja Pavlović, Snežana Cekić
Arch Med Sci 2006; 2, 1: 28-31
Introduction: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid
widely spread in modern nutrition. Numerous recent studies have shown the
existance of glutamic receptors on different non-neuronal cells, which among
others also include lymphocytes and thymocytes. However, it has not yet been
precisely established what modulatory effect is created by the activation of these
receptors on the immune system cells.
Stages and Effects of Pyrexia and Hyperpyrexia A pyrexia is a body temperature between 37.60 and 400C and hyperpyrexia is a temperature > 400C. They are conditions in which the thermoregulatory mechanisms are intact but the body temperature is high. Infection s the most common cause of pyrexia and sepsis of hyperpyrexia but there are other causes. A number of drugs have been associated with pyrexia, e.g. diuretics, antiseizure therapy, analgesics, antiarrhythmics and antibiotics. Other causes of pyrexia include neoplasm, surgery, acute myocardial infarctions, heart failure, haemolysis (seen in reactions to blood transfusions) and hyperthyroidism.
Crystal arthritis We are going to start out with gout, which is a thing to remember, it is a different disease for both male and female. Men tend to present at a younger age because of the association with uric acid and antigen levels in the blood. Some are between the ages of 35 and 55, is the average onset of gout in a male patient. Usually it presents as an acute podagra, which is the great toe or possibly a knee or an ankle depending upon the saturation of the soft tissue with uric acid.
Treatment of heart failure due to systolic dysfunction A. Treatment of the underlying cardiac disease
Hypertension is the primary cause of HF in many patients.
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta
blockers, and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are
the preferred antihypertensive agents because they improve
survival in HF. Beta blockers can also provide anginal relief
in ischemic heart disease and rate control in with atrial
Renovascular disease. Testing for renovascular disease is
indicated if there is severe or refractory hypertension, a
sudden rise in blood pressure, or repeated episodes of flash
Ischemic heart disease. Coronary atherosclerosis is the
most common cause of cardiomyopathy, comprising 50 to
75 percent of patients with HF.
a. All patients with documented ischemic heart disease
should be treated medically for relief of angina and with
risk factor reduction, such as control of serum lipids.
b. Myocardial revascularization with angioplasty or bypass
surgery may improve exercise capacity and prognosis in
patients with hibernating myocardium. Revascularization
should also be considered for repeated episodes of acute
left ventricular dysfunction and flash pulmonary edema.
Valvular disease is the primary cause of HF 10 to 12 percent.
Other causes of heart failure: Alcohol abuse, cocaine
abuse, obstructive sleep apnea, nutritional deficiencies,
myocarditis, hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, thyroid disease,
and rheumatologic disorders such as systemic lupus
Symptoms and Treatment of Bronchitis Contagious Children What is Bronchitis ?
Bronchitis is inflammation of the mucous membranes of the bronchi, the airways that carry airflow from the trachea into the lungs. Bronchitis can be divided into two categories, acute and chronic, each of which has unique etiologies, pathologies, and therapies.
What is Vitamin C Vitamin C, also called ascorbic acid, is the most wily consumed nutritional supplement. It is essential to the formation of collagen, a protein that is used to form all the connective tissues of your body. It is required in the breakdown and absorption of some amino acids, other minerals (such as iron), and the formation of some hormones. It may also help the immune system prevent infections. As an antioxidant it may play a role in prevention of atherosclerosis and some forms of cancer.
Birth control recall due to packaging error Qualitest Pharmaceuticals is recalling multiple lots of birth-control pills because of a packaging error that could lead to incorrect dosing and unintended pregnancies.
The company says the error caused the weekly tablet orientation to be reversed and obscuring the lot number and expiration date on certain packages. The problem could lead to inadequate contraception if women don't get the proper daily regimen of the drug.
Erythema Multiforme and Stevens Johnson Syndrome Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute hypersensitivity reaction characterized by distinctive skin lesions and mucous membrane involvement that has a spectrum of severity. It occurs in two forms: the more common "minor" type and the more severe "major" type, also called Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Sometimes EM includes toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) or Lyell disease. EM minor first was described completely by von Hebra in 1866; Stevens and Johnson described the major variant in 1922. EM occurs more often in males, and 20% to 50% of cases occur in the pediatric age group, although rarely in those younger than age 3 years. A winter predominance is suggested.
The pathologic process responsible for EM is unknown. A review of the literature generates an extensive list of causative or inciting agents. Most frequently mentioned are sulfonamide antibiotics and anticonvulsants, both used commonly in pediatric practice. Malignancies, radiotherapy, autoimmune diseases, and infectious agents such as mycoplasma also have been implicated as possible causes. In 1992, Weston et al described a high incidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in EM lesions among both adults and children with or without a preceding history of HSV infection.
Spinal Stenosis Definition and Treatment What is defintion of Spinal Stenosis. Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of one or more areas in your spine — most often in your neck or lower back. This narrowing can put pressure on the spinal cord or spinal nerves at the level of compression. Stenoses of the vascular type are often associated with unusual blood sounds resulting from turbulent flow over the narrowed blood vessel. This sound can be made audible by a stethoscope, but diagnosis is generally made or confirmed with some form of medical imaging.
aortic stenosis (AS) a narrowing of the aortic orifice of the heart or of the aorta near the valve.
hypertrophic pyloric stenosis narrowing of the pyloric canal due to muscular hypertrophy and mucosal edema, usually in infants.
Open heart surgery Are you looking for about open heart surgery? Open heart surgery is a surgery in which the patient's heart is opened and surgery is performed on the internal structures of the heart. It was soon discovered by Dr. Wilfred G. Bigelow of the University of Toronto that the repair of intracardiac pathologies was better done with a bloodless and motionless environment, which means that the heart should be stopped and drained of blood. The first successful intracardiac correction of a congenital heart defect using hypothermia was performed by Dr. C. Walton Lillehei and Dr. F. John Lewis at the University of Minnesota on September 2, 1952. The following year, Soviet surgeon Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Vishnevskiy conducted the first cardiac surgery under local anesthesia.
Exercises for Pregnant Women Exercise does wonders during pregnancy. It boosts mood, improves sleep, and reduces pregnancy aches and pains. It also prepares you for childbirth by strengthening muscles and building endurance, and makes it much easier to get back in shape after your baby's born.
Hypertension Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment High blood pressure is defined as a systolic BP ≥ 140 or a diastolic BP > 90
on more than two occasions (see Table 3.5). Hypertension is associated with
MI, heart failure, stroke, and kidney disease and has a higher prevalence
among ethnic minorities, in women, and with ↑ age. As a screening measure,
BP should be checked at least every two years starting at age 18.